Rank and File
A Clerk’s War
Monday 25th to Sunday 31st Aust 1941
No rest for the wicked, nor the filing clerks. I suspected that nobody would take over my duties while I was on my Ministerial assignment, and I was right. My office was a disaster zone, with a week’s worth of documents piled up on the desk, the chairs and the floor. Gisela brought me a coffee (real coffee – I was not the only one to visit the “Afrika’s” store room) and after a look at my expression retired quickly. Only one thing to do: get to work. What had happened while I was away? Method, that was what was needed.
First, what has been happening in Berlin?
A new navigation device is being installed in our medium aircraft: the “Knickebein” radar system. From what I can make out from the technical attachments to the announcement, two transmitters send out beams towards the target. Our aircraft, using the “crooked leg” receivers, fly along one beam until it intersects the other. Sounds simple, but I know how things look good on paper. The research team is now working on a similar system suitable for smaller aircraft, tentatively called “Wotan”.
A brand new Knickebein transmitter ready for operation
More funds have been found for roadworks in the east and Zaslawye, Minsk, Sumy, Rowne, Berezne and Korets’ are to be upgraded. Some projects have been completed, with three pre-fabricated airbases set up at Kuzenkino, Smolensk and Sumy. Also completed: the trucks to motorise 102 Infantry regiment, which has now returned to active service with 168.ID.
Someone at OKH must be aware of the problems facing Österreich Army, as I noticed a movement order sending the newly created 2nd schwere Panzerkorps (3rd and 4th sPzD) to Odessa. No infantry were available for the korps, but it the documents show it was marked as a priority to receive reinforcements. Volker will be happy, unless the Russians arrive before the tanks.
The only other movement order was issued by OKM, instructing Admiral Marschall to take 1st Schachtflotte to the Finnish Coast: while the Ostseeflotte was seen capable of harassing the Russian coastal steamers, the Soviet Navy was known to have a significant force based at Leningrad. Although Marschall had his ships heading out of Stettin within hours, he was not fast enough. He was still 50 kilometres away from Boehm’s battle-cruisers when the Russians struck. Admiral Kuznetzov had two battleships, “Marat” and “Oktyabrskaya Revoluciya” escorted by three destroyer squadrons. “Schleswig-Holstein” and “Schlesien” were both badly damaged and 2nd Zerstörergeschwader was annihilated. The two relics of the last war had to flee for safety in nearby Narva.
Naval Battle off the Finnish Coast – 1st Schlachtflotte arrives
It was not long before the 1916 Großes Torpedoboots were avenged. Aircraft from the “Graf Zeppelin” located the Russian fleet and the big guns of the “Tirpitz” were able to open fire, soon joined by the “Von der Tann” and “Gneisenau”. Two dozen transports were sunk, but it is not known if they were loaded. (Our latest intelligence suggests they have been packed with troops fleeing Kivioli) The Russians then managed to evade our search planes, but Marschall has signalled he will continue to patrol the area.
Situation Map at end of August
Ominously, there had been little news from Kesselring, and when a report arrived it carried bad news. The attack on Kivioli had been called off. The assault had become bogged down and General Böttcher had requested a pause to reorganise. More than 1,800 men had been lost, and still the immense mass of Russians held out. More than 135,000 Soviet troops were crammed into that single province, reliant on the occasional small freighter evading our blockade.
To give him his due, General Böttcher does not lack courage. While our other units licked their wounds, he took his own division, 1st Marine Sturm Division, straight back into action, giving them barely time to bolt down a hot meal and grab some ammunition. The other units joined in over time but his men led the charge. His decision was vindicated when, several days later, the entire Russian Baltic Front surrendered. With no escape and no supplies, General Ozaryakin had no alternative to avoid the pointless slaughter of his helpless men.
Polen Army Nord
Situation Map at end of August
Airpower may have helped Felber and 62.ID defeat more than four times their number, but it was still costly. More than 1,300 men died taking Mal Lokhovo. But that was not a major concern now, as von Manstein’s gaze was firmly fixed on the big prize: Leningrad. On the 26th Lörzer’s interceptors were already dogfighting Astakhov’s air regiments over the city. They reported back to Baltic Army HQ that the city was lightly held and General Kesselring immediately passed the information to Polen Army Nord.
That was all von Manstein needed. The order went out to General Strecker in Gatcina. He had 86.ID ready and minutes later the nebelwerfers of his rocket artillery regiment were launching salvo after salvo. The infantry stormed in and after an initial heavy assault made a major breakthrough against the 2nd line 178 Strelkovaya. It took just two days to capture the city, at a cost of just 200 men. The Russians, demoralised after the succession of defeats in the last few months fighting, had not one unit available to assist Chistyakov’s garrison troops.
Battle for Leningrad
Tannu Tuva is not the only Russian ally actively fighting – General Curtze is under attack by troops from Sinkiang. There is no danger, as the lightly armed Di’1 Shi is no real threat to 20.ID. Is this a sign that Stavka is missing the lost divisions of the Baltic pocket? Although the Sinkiang leader, General Luang Lin-Yu, has kept up his attacks, his men have made little headway. Now von Wietersheim had brought up 11.ID and is counter-attacking into Bologoye and the fighting should soon be all over.
General Müller and 10.ID tool on huge odds when they advanced into Gorki. On paper, General Polpavski had 65,000 men under his command. The reality was that most of these were a hungry, disorderly crowd of beaten men, many of whom had dropped their weapons in their eagerness to head east as quickly as possible. After 3 days Müller claimed victory, but the fighting was not over yet. Hours later his scouts stumbled on elements of a new division, 313 Strelkovaya, and soon Gorki was a battle zone again.
Against all odds: General Müller and 10.ID against the Red Army
Just to remind von Manstein that not all the fighting would be one way, word arrived at Polen Nord HQ from Hännicke in Azanovo that he was under heavy attack again. Three rifle divisions had attacked from three neighbouring provinces and 56.ID was hard pressed. Although 500 replacement troops had arrived, supplies were low and few trucks had arrived at the divisional depots. There was little von Manstein could do – his reserves were far to the north. Once more it would be up to Hänicke and his men. Showing admirable tenacity they held for a day before the Russians called off the attack. Hänicke suspects they had supply issues as well.
In the north, however, resistance seemed to have collapsed with the loss of Leningrad. Von Pannwitz advised that his push into Zarubino was little more than a field exercise. 12 men lost, but 140 Strelkovaya simply faded away. But not all the Russians had given in. North-east of Leningrad Pfeffer found Primakov’s 142 Strelkovaya a formidable opponent. Even when 72.ID joined the attack from Leningrad Primakov’s men stood firm.
Unfortunately for General von Salmuth, the Daugava River loops north between Novoselki and Olenino. To move east 52.ID must make a river crossing, and on the other side General Verkhilovich had an armoured and two rifle divisions. He claims all is well, but reports indicate little progress and mounting losses. A similar story comes from General Nehring in Butchino. Prisoners tell of supply shortages but the two Russian divisions are steady and capable of holding off both 1st Panzer and 87.ID, at least for now.
As news of the capture of Leningrad spread, some of von Manstein’s men had time for a joke, even if they were a long way from home
Of course, the lucky General Wünnenbeg struck none of these problems. His report on 9th Panzer Division’s push into Krasnaya Gorya reads more like a drive in the country. The only interest was the nature of the defenders. As well as a Soviet cavalry division, he encountered thousands of Sinkiangese troops. Questioning prisoners was very difficult (none spoke German and very few Russian, and of course Wünnenburg has no Uighur speakers) but it was confirmed that they came from two divisions, Di’2 Shi and 1 Xin’jiang Shi. By driving through the night, 9th Panzer completely outwitted the Russian commander and by dawn of 30th he had withdrawn all his forces.
The last report from von Manstein’s HQ was another positive: General Nehring is cutting through 48 Strelkovaya like a knife through butter. 71.ID is advancing as fast as its men can march, barely stopping to clear our small pockets of Russian troops. We should hold the province within a day or so.
Polen Army Sud
Situation Map at end of August
What had started on 13th September as von Sponeck’s armoured thrust into Verkhnedneprovskiy had ballooned into a major battle as both sides flung in more and more troops. In the end, quality prevailed as our 5 divisions cleared nearly 75,000 Russians from the area. Bremer’s push into Izdeshkovo looked as though it could go the same way as two more divisions joined his assault, but 80 Strelkovaya has received no support and Rommel’s HQ assures us Galitski’s men are about to break.
The Sdkfz 233’s of General Hansen’s Aufklärungs regiment raced into Betlica, eager to start closing the neck of the Pripyat pocket. They soon reported heavy concentrations of troops. In fact 16.ID (mot) was facing three rifle divisions. It ended up taking three days to take Betlica, days that allowed the thousands of enemy soldiers to extricate themselves from the swamps.
Great news from General Hartmann: he and our Hungarian allies have taken Homyel’! This will close half the Pripyat trap, with at least half a dozen divisions caught. The Russians, however, were well aware of the importance of the road hub the city represented, and 5 Vitebskaya flung itself at 19.ID and 5 gyaloghadostály. It was a vain hope and the Russians soon shattered against the stern defence Hartmann’s men put up. It was not over yet. Late on the 28th another rifle division appeared in the city and our two divisions were once more denied the victory for which they have worked and suffered.
The spirited defence put up by the Russians in Kletnja paid off. Freißner tried everything to break through the screen of defenders to get to the congested roads in the rear, but 103.ID could not penetrate the determined Soviets. By the time he could claim to control the province, the retreating divisions were long gone and his men were exhausted. The arrival of a fresh Russian rifle division (43 Strelkovaya) was too much – Freißner pulled his men out without firing a shot. It was left to General von Langermann und Erlenkamp and his 6th Panzer to once again fight for Kletnja.
Exhausted by their efforts, 103.ID could not put up a fight to hold onto Kletnja. Note the dozens of Russian divisions fleeing the Pripyat Marshes
It would appear likely that Bryanskja will turn out to be another Kletjna. Chasing the demoralised 18 Gorno and 37 Kavellerie, General Steiner has run into two infantry divisions that want to fight. Even with 108.ID assisting 3rd Panzer Division, the combination of the Dniepr River and a determined enemy have halted Steiner’s men.
Situation Map at end of August
Given probably the worst task on the Eastern Front, the Hungarians were understandably slow to get enthusiastic. 6 gyaloghadostály moved cautiously into Deniskowicze, General Nagy aware that more than ten times his 6,000 men were in front of him. It soon became clear that only a few thousand were capable of any resistance and the Hungarians ploughed deeper into the Pripyat. 1 Hadtest, impressed by the ease with which their men are advancing, has sent 2 gyaloghadostály to exploit the success. Nagy reports 6 of the 8 identified Russian divisions are already in flight.
Trapped and exhausted, Russians in the Pripyat “bag” fight for their lives
Situation Map at end of August
108.ID’s efforts to catch the fleeing Russian HQ units was unsuccessful, as Stavka flung units after unit into the way. General Völckers estimates nearly 55,000 soldiers were in from of him, and though he secured Vygonici, the retreat did not turn into a rout. Still the Russians stream northwest from the Pripyat. In fact, on the 29th there was an attempt to force Völckers from Vygonici, but after a short exchange of fire the Russian commander ordered his units to continue north-east, towards possible safety.
In an attempt to extend the pocket a little, Dietrich tried to seize Lokot’, but he asked too much of 2nd Panzer. Weakened by the attrition it suffered in Sevsk assisting “Julia” the armoured division was always going to have a hard time against Borzilov’s 32,000 men. The manoeuvrability of the enemy cavalry and motorised troops gave the Russians a chance to slow our advance and when a fourth Soviet unit arrived on 31st August, Dietrich accepted defeat. Reduced to less than 8,000 men, he pulled back to Buryn to refit.
Late on 26th the long escape route from the Pripyat started to narrow. 5 and 35.ID moved on Below’s 82 Motorizavannaya and 169 Strelkovaya. The heavy forests bordering the marshy areas gave the defenders the advantage at first, but Guderian was intent on closing the gap and assigned two more divisions, 100 and 108.ID. When they arrive, the Russians will have to deal with attacks from 180 degrees.
Getting equipment into the forest can be a challenge, but 5 and 35.ID intend to clear the defenders quickly.
General Warlimont thought he would need to fight hard for Kursk. The city had several factories and was held by two rifle divisions in fair condition. But the defence was half-hearted and by midnight of the 29th the city was ours. It cost 45.ID just 29 men. In contrast, at the time Warlimont was moving forward easily in a built up area, General Hartmann was pulling 112.ID out of the marshes of Chernihiv. A week of effort had achieved nothing but the loss of nearly 600 men. The Russians, low on food and ammunition, had fought our men to a standstill and with no hope of reinforcement retreat was the only option.
General Altrichter would sympathise with Hartmann. Since entering Zeleznogorsk he and 107.ID (mot) have been well held by Gamarik’s 5 divisions. 9 Tankovaya in particular has been hard to dislodge. General Pintor has released 4a Divisione Alpina “Cuneense” to help, but it may be too late to turn the battle into a victory. Behind the steel barrier of 9 Tankovaya’s vehicles, the four infantry divisions are making good their escape.
I hope that Erich Rossner was not kept up to date with his division’s progress – Geyr von Schweppenburg’s rash decision to take it into Chutove, in contravention of a directive from Balkans Army HQ, has turned into a minor disaster. Von Schweppenburg has managed to extricate his armour and infantry, but at a cost. The unit suffered nearly 20% casualties and will be useless for some time. With only weeks of clear weather remaining, Guderian cannot afford to have one of his panzer divisions out of action.
At least Jodl’s gamble of attacking Mena across the Desna River has been successful, though we paid a price. The Russians fought hard and although for once we outnumbered them more than two to one, losses were about equal. Had Jodl not persuaded Guderian to lend him three other divisions the result would no doubt have been very different.
Things started well for von Förster in Uneca. 25.ID stormed across the plains, finding only administrative units and a few combat troops from 49 Strelkovaya. The arrival of another rifle division soon turned the tables, and von Förster, seeing his chance of capturing two HQ units disappear, called back his men. There was no point in fighting against odds for a treeless plain of no strategic or tactical value.
As is becoming routine, Balkans Army has been called upon to help our Italian allies. With the loss of Okhtyrka, a dangerous bulge appeared in our front line. General Köstring was given the task of retaking the province which he did with his customary efficiency. Stavka had left just one rifle division to hold the area, and although another unit was rushed to assist, the speed of 13.ID (mot) meant the reinforcements arrived too late.
One of Guderian’s generals is concentrating on the army’s goal: Bryansk, where it is supposed to meet with Polen Army Sud. At 9AM on 30th Herzog informed Balkans Army HQ that 36.ID was entering Navija and that although his men were coming under fire, he thought the defence was brittle. For once Guderian had a reserve armour unit ready to exploit success, and 4th leichte Panzer was swung in beside the infantry. Last reports show the only remnants of one Soviet division remain.
To the south, Phleps had his victory in L’gov. It was a much harder won battle than he had expected, but 98.ID did receive a bonus. The defeated Russians all streamed north, perhaps because the roads were marginally better. Whatever the reason, the way into Trosna was left open, and even though his vehicles were low on fuel , Phleps had no hesitation in taking possession of the area to the north-west of Kursk. That was all Warlimont needed. Meise had already taken 345.ID (mot) into Kursk, so with his north flank secure, Warlimont could head south-east, into Obojan’. General Zaev, commanding 238 Strelkovaya, could soon find himself in real trouble, as Warlimont and his men are full of confidence and have had a few days to recover.
The week did not end on a good note for the Balkans Army. Ruoff, arguably Guderian’s most experienced general, had been defeated in Starodub. 2.ID “Vorwärts” with its proud history, had been fought to a standstill by 227 Strelkovaya – the late arrival of 104 Strelkovaya just confirmed the result. The thick woods and many small streams of Starodub did not allow “Vorwärts” to use their manoeuvrability, and the Russian commander used his defensive position perfectly. With 10% of his men dead, General Ruoff will need to rest his division before it can be used offensively again.
Italian Expeditionary Army
Situation Map at end of August
With the assistance of 33 and 34.ID, 2a Divisione Alpina “Tridentina” threw back three Soviet units attacking into Krasnodom, showing that with a little stiffening our allies can handle critical situations. Nobody expected them to perform as well unsupported, but late on the 25th Gariboldi with “Firenze” and “Pinerolo” captured Okhtyrka, driving out a Russian cavalry division.
Some of the Italians have the luxury of motorised transport, but nearly all are on foot or rely on horses.
The Italian hold on Okhtyrka was only temporary: on the 27th a fierce Russian counterattack forced Gariboldi’s two divisions to retreat, though losses were minimal.
Situation Map at end of August
As expected, 16 Tankovaya could not hold Dniproprodzerzhyns’k against Hell’s three divisions, and that province now appears secure. Not far to the north, having assisted the Italians repulse the attack on Krasnodom, Glokke took 33.ID into Dinprodzerzynsk, and the situation was reversed. Despite being reinforced with Petzel’s 34.ID, our progress was painfully slow and Garasimov’s two divisions (13 “Dagestanskaya” and 61 Motorizovannaya) have two more divisions in reserve.
Smarting at having lost his toe hold across the Dniepr, von Kluge had all his commanders testing for possible bridgeheads across the river. General Volkmann informed Österreich Army HQ that Nikopol’ appeared lightly held and was authorised to attempt the crossing. 1 Gebirgsjäger made a successful attack and 6 and 162.ID were ordered to help crush the single enemy division, 46 “Dnepropetrovskaya”. As at the end of the month, Volkmann seems to have made the required breakthrough.
The bitter fighting for Novooleksiyivka is finally over, and von Kluge has instructed von Roques to move 46.ID across the Dneipr to hold the province. Von Roques agreed but he begged Österreich Army for help, pointing out that his division alone lost more than a 1,000 men and is short of food and ammunition.
My new friend will no doubt be relieved to hear that Friedrich-Willich had been ordered to take 2nd Gebirgsjäger to Mikolayivk to relieve the hard pressed 111.ID. It may be while, however, as Russian bombers struck the Gebirgsjägers as they crossed Snihurivka, killing nearly 120 men. Rychagov’s aircraft were intercepted as they returned to base but no less than twelve fighter units arrived simultaneously, including three Italians. In the confusion little effective damage was inflicted.
On the morning of the 27th, Eppich’s 5th Gebirgjäger Division attacked Zaporizhzhyna. By 3PM the fighting was over, the commander of hapless 144 Strelkovaya taking his men to the safety of the east bank of the Dneipr. The capture of this province in the great bend of the Dneipr marks the furthest east the Wehrmacht has penetrated into Russia. But von Kluge was intent on keeping up the pressure. He also threatened Dnepropetrovsk itself by sending Bock into Oleksandrivka, where 136.ID took less than a day to defeat 53 Strelkovaya. An assault on this key city of the south cannot be far away.
Although von Roques had requested assistance, none had arrived by the time 46.ID was hit by 17 Tankovaya. Although Semenchenko’s armoured division was showing signs of recent combat, it was still in better condition than 46.ID. When 127 Strelkovaya, fresh and at full strength, seemed ready to join the battle from the south, von Roques accepted defeat and led his men back across the river. Another failed attempt to maintain a toe-hold across the Dneipr.
The arrival of 2nd Gebirgsjäger, battered thought it was, signalled the end of the battle of Mikolayivk. The Russians obviously decided that another 9,000 defenders made a river crossing impossible. I checked the lengthy casualty lists but realised I did not know the Familiennamen of my friends in the 111.ID. I can only hope that the little machine gun post on the banks of the Dneipr was not the target of a “probing attack”.
Late news on the 31st was surprising (although knowing the nature of the Gebirgsjägers, perhaps to be expected – they don’t like fighting defensive battles). Friedrich-Willich, having forced the Soviets to call off their attempt at crossing the Dneipr, is now making his own attempt. As I write this, his Pioniere regiment is on the south shore of the river, holding off two Russian divisions. Can Friedrich-Willich turn the tables so quickly? Or is this just another foolhardy attack that will peter out from lack of resources?
Early thunderstorms did not deter General Friedrich-Willich from his attack, but they are a reminder that winter is approaching.
Unterseeebootsflotte Activity Report for August 1941
27 ships and 2 escorts sunk. Our success rate is falling and we suspect the Allies have re-routed their convoys. The Kriegsmarine is considering altering our U-boat patrol zones.
Finalised Battles for the period 25th to 31st August 1941
Dniproprodzerzhyns’k: 149 (29,806): 137 (19,997)
Mal Lokhovo: 1,328 (9,996): 642 (43,016)
Verkhnedneprovskiy: 1,967 (51,532): 2,215 (73,984)
Krasnodom 564 (31,025): 687 (25,942) (350 Italian)
Orkhtyrka: 12 (11,977): 30 (5,672) (Italian)
Vygonici: 273 (19,424): 380 (54,431)
Betlica: 694 (9,924): 632 (26,980)
Lokot’: 1,665 (9332): 938 (40,854)
Leningrad: 214 (17,991): 412 (9,993)
Zaporizhzhyna: 79 (9,996): 75 (7,529)
2nd Okhtyrkha: 117 (11,997): 167 (49,668) (Italian)
Kursk: 29 (9,996): 53 (11,000)
Chernihiv: 584 (7,554): 210 (16,994)
Oleksandrivka: 90 (19,985): 121 (7,998)
Azanovo: 260 (9,552): 196 (53,763)
Kivioli: 1,838 (48,992): 1,530 (137,267)
2nd Kivioli: 667 (40,303): 948 (72,808)
Gorki: 113 (9,995): 360 (74,512)
Homyel: 731 (25,988): 832 (28,501)
2nd Homyel: 8 (15,740): 14 (7,759)
Kletnja: 1,847 (33,989): 1,151 (74,061)
Zarubino: 12 (9,999): 25 (8,161)
Chutove: 1,728 (9,994): 697 (46,737)
Novooleksiyivka: 2,754 (29,987): 1,737 (27,366)
2nd Vygonici: 12 (9,679): 8 (18,988)
2nd Novooleksiyivka: 287 (8,631): 150 (9,117)
Mena: 1,979 (39,982): 1,909 (15,919)
Uneca: 89 (9,619): 192 (17,468)
Krasnaya Gorya: 22 (9,999): 161 (34,091)
2nd Okhtyrka: 90 (9,991): 235 (15,832)
L’gov: 860 (19,562): 817 (15,333)
Mikolayivk: 985 (18,654): 940 (17,984)
Starodub: 1,056 (9,999): 477 (18,992)
Total Battle Casualties for the period 25th to 31st August 1941
Total Battle Casualties to date
Hungarian: Nil + 541 = 541
Italian: 479 + 2,370 = 2,849
Germany: 18,130 + 286,238 = 304,368
Russian: 19,078 + 306,950 = 326,028
Bombing Summary for the period 25th to 31st August 1941
Homyel: Hoffman von Waldau with 4th Schlachtfliegerkorps: 140, 167, 130, 103, 124, 178, 69, 170, 172 (1,253)
Homyel: Sperrle with 1st Kampffliegerkorps: 270, 351, 121 (742)
Svyetlahorsk: Sperrle with 1st Kampffliegerkorps: 226, 301, 195 (722)
Svyetlahorsk: Rapaich with 1 Légihadsereg: 101, 270, 169, 181, 172, 172, 174, 161, 73 (1,473)
Svyetlahorsk: Hoffmann van Waldau with 4th Schlachtfliegerkorps: 83, 145, 131 (359)
Nikopol’: Udet with 3rd Schlachtfliegerkorps: 114, 179, 231 (524)
Idzeshkovo: Löhr with 2nd Schlachtfliegerkorps: 124, 185, 185 (494)
Oleksandrivka: Dörstling with 6th Kampffliegrkorps: 233, 183 (416)
Kletnja: Sperrle with 1st Kampffliegerkorps: 272, 140, 281 (693)
Mena: Müller-Michaels with 5th Kampffliegerkorps: 219, 288, 138 (645)
Peklino: Sperrle with 1st Kampffliegerkorps: 178, 287, 280 (745)
Dinprodzerzynsk: Dörstling with 6th Kampffliegerkorps: 198, 62, 47 (307)
Olerino: Keller with 7th Kampffliegerkorps: 176, 231 (407)
Kivioli: Wever with 8th Kampffliegerkorps: 167, 72 (239)
Russian fighters made several attempts to attack our bombers, but the response was overwhelming
Snihurivka: Rychagov with 1st and 2nd BAD: 119
Mutwica: Khudyakov with 12th and 13th BAD: 128 (Hungarian)
The VVS tried to attack our ground forces in Kozelets’, Novtorovits’ke, Kletnja and to mount a second raid on Mutwica, but our aircraft intercepted them before they could drop their bombs.
Our fighters, at nearly full strength despite weeks of combat, drive off Rychagov’s bombers over Kozelets’
Total Bombing Casualties for the period 25th to 31st August 1941
Previous Bombing Casualties
Total Bombing Casualties to date
Hungarian: 128 + Nil = 128
German: 119 + 3,668 = 3,787
Russian: 9,019 + 213,616 = 222,635
East Front at end of August 1941
Total East Front Casualties for the period 25th to 31st August 1941
Hungarian: Nil + 128 = 128
Italian: 479 + Nil = 479
German: 18,130 + 119 = 18,249
Russian: 19,078 + 9,019 = 28,097
Total East Front Casualties to date (not including surrendered or overrun units)
Hungarian: 128 + 531 = 659
Italian: 479 + 2,370 = 2,849
German: 18,249 + 289,906 = 308,155
Russian: 28,097 + 520,566 = 548,663