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    Romanorum Imperator Augustus asd21593's Avatar
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    A History Of The Roman Empire

    A History Of The Roman Empire

    by Spyridon Antonovich



    Table Of Contents

    Prologue
    Manuel II: Part One
    Manuel II: Part Two
    Manuel II: Part Three
    Manuel II: Part Four
    Andronikos V: Part One
    Andronikos V: Part Two


    List Of Roman Emperors

    1. Augustus 27BC-14AD
    2. Tiberius 14-37
    3. Caligula 37-41
    4. Claudius 41-54
    5. Nero 54-68
    6. Galba 68-69
    7. Otho 69
    8. Vitellius 69
    9. Vespasian 69-79
    10. Titus 79-81
    11. Domitian 81-96
    12. Nerva 96-98
    13. Trajan 98-117
    14. Hadrian 117-138
    15. Antoninus Pius 138-161
    16. Lucius Verus 161-169
    17. Marcus Aurelius 161-180
    18. Commodus 180-192
    19. Pertinax 193
    20. Didius Julianus 193
    21. Septimius Severus 193-211
    22. Caracalla 211-217
    23. Macrinus 217-218
    24. Elagabalus 218-222
    25. Alexander Severus 222-235
    26. Maximinius Thrax 235-238
    27. Gordian I 238
    28. Gordian II 238
    29. Pupienus Maximus 238
    30. Balbinus 238
    31. Gordian III 238-244
    32. Philip The Arab 244-249
    33. Decius 249-251
    34. Hostilian 251
    35. Trebonianus Gallus 251-253
    36. Aemilianus 253
    37. Valerian 253-260
    38. Gallienus 260-268
    39. Claudius Gothicus 268-270
    40. Quintillus 270
    41. Aurelian 270-275
    42. Tacitus 275-276
    43. Florianus 276
    44. Probus 276-282
    45. Carus 282-283
    46. Numerian 283-284
    47. Carinus 283-285
    48. Diocletian/Maximian 285-305
    49. Constantius I Chlorus 305-306
    50. Constantine I The Great 306-337
    51. Constantius II 337-361
    52. Julian 361-363
    53. Jovian 363-364
    54. Valentinian I 364-375
    55. Valens 375-378
    56. Gratian 378-379
    57. Theodosius I 379-395
    58. Arcadius 395-408
    59. Theodosius II 408-450
    60. Pulcheria 450-453
    61. Marcian 453-457
    62. Leo I 457-474
    63. Leo II 474
    64. Zeno 474-475
    65. Basiliscus 475-476
    66. Zeno 476-491
    67. Anastasius I 491-518
    68. Justin I 518-527
    69. Justinian I The Great 527-565
    70. Justin II 565-578
    71. Tiberius II Constantine 578-582
    72. Maurice 582-602
    73. Phocas 602-610
    74. Herakleios 610-641
    75. Constantine III 641
    76. Heraklonas 641
    77. Constans II 641-668
    78. Constantine IV 668-685
    79. Justinian II 685-711
    80. Philipikos 711-713
    81. Anastasios II 713-718
    82. Theodosios III 715-717
    83. Leo III The Isaurian 717-741
    84. Constantine V 741-775
    85. Leo IV The Khazar 775-780
    86. Constantine VI 780-797
    87. Irene Of Athens 797-802
    88. Nikephoros I 802-811
    89. Stavriakos 811-812
    90. Michael I Rangabe 812-813
    91. Leo V The Armenian 813-820
    92. Michael II 820-829
    93. Theophilus 829-842
    94. Theodora 842-855
    95. Michael III 855-867
    96. Basil I The Macedonian 867-886
    97. Leo VI The Wise 886-912
    98. Alexander 912-913
    99. Constantine VII 913-959
    100. Romanos II 959-963
    101. Nikephoros II Phokas 963-969
    102. John I Tzimiskes 969-976
    103. Basil II 976-1025
    104. Constantine VIII 1025-1028
    105. Zoe 1028-1050
    106. Constantine IX 1050-1055
    107. Theodora 1055-1056
    108. Michael VI 1056-1057
    109. Isaac I Komnenos 1057-1059
    110. Constantine X Doukas 1059-1067
    111. Romanos IV Diogenes 1067-1071
    112. Michael VII 1071-1078
    113. Nikephoros III 1078-1081
    114. Alexios I Komnenos 1081-1118
    115. John II Komnenos 1118-1143
    116. Manuel I Komnenos 1143-1180
    117. Alexios II Komnenos 1180-1183
    118. Andronikos I Komnenos1183-1185
    119. Isaac II Angelos 1185-1195
    120. Alexios III Angelos 1195-1203
    121. Isaac II Angelos 1203-1204
    122. Alexios IV Angelos 1204
    123. Nikolaos Kanabos 1204
    124. Alexios V Doukas 1204
    125. Constantine Laskaris 1204-1205
    126. Theodore I Laskaris 1205-1221
    127. John III Doukas 1221-1254
    128. Theodore II Laskaris 1254-1258
    129. John IV Laskaris 1258-1261
    130. Michael VIII Palaiologos 1261-1282
    131. Andronikos II Palaiologos 1282-1328
    132. Andronikos III Palaiologos 1328-1342
    133. John V Palaiologos 1341-1347
    134. John VI Kantakouzenos 1347-1354
    135. John V Palaiologos 1354-1376
    136. Andronikos IV Palaiologos 1376-1379
    137. John V Palaiologos 1379-1390
    138. John VI Palaiologos 1390
    139. John V Palaiologos 1390-1391
    140. Manuel II Palaiologos 1391-1424
    141. Andronikos V Palaiologos 1424-
    Last edited by asd21593; 18-08-2009 at 18:02.
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  2. #2
    Romanorum Imperator Augustus asd21593's Avatar
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    Author's Note

    Well, here goes. I finally think I'm ready to begin writing a new AAR. I'll appreciate your comments, no matter how mundane, and they'll be very motivating to me. I'm kinda nervous that I'll lose the motivation for this, so your comments might help keep my motivation at the level it is at now. It should also be noted that for the first time, I am actually playing the game at the same time as I am writing the AAR. Therefore, I can hopefully keep my interest in the long run. Before this, I usually played the game while taking screenshots and wrote the AAR once the game was completed. But this time, I can actually take advice, allow the readers to chose things, etc. This AAR will be written just like a history book. The "author" is not my real name, or anyone else's as far as I know, but is just a fictional Greek-Russian historian writing in the present about the Byzantine Empire. Anyway, I'll stop rambling and get to writing the prologue.

    Please read and enjoy!
    Last edited by asd21593; 04-08-2009 at 23:03.
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    Romanorum Imperator Augustus asd21593's Avatar
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    Prologue

    Welcome again, to the fourth volume of “A History Of The Roman Empire,” a rather grand undertaking chronicling the history of an empire known by many names. The title of this book refers to the empire’s official name However, it has also been called the “Byzantine Empire” by some, “Romania” by others, the “Eastern Empire”, and the “Orthodox Empire” by some nations. This empire in question is officially known as the “The Orthodox Empire Of The Eastern Romans” shortened to the “Roman Empire.” This was its original identity.

    As explained in Volume III, the empire was originally an offshoot of the Roman Empire. As the Roman Empire fell apart in the 4th and 5th centuries, it split into two distinct empires, the Western Empire and the Eastern Empire. The West fell in 476, however, the East remained and struggled for survival for centuries. Although it continued to be a distinctly Roman empire for centuries, by the 8th and 9th centuries, its language was undoubtedly Greek, as was its culture. It was for this reason that it began to be called the “Greek Empire” in Western Europe. While the inhabitants of the empire originally rejected the name, they began to warm up to the name and accept it as an alternate name by the 15th and 16th centuries, although in official documents and such, it is still referred to by its original and quite lengthy name. Despite this, this book will continue to refer to the empire as the Roman Empire.

    Now that we have the often controversial name issue settled, we can focus on where we left off in our history of the Roman Empire. We last left the Roman Empire in a terrible state. It had been reduced to just a shell of its former self, left with only the city of Constantinople and the Morea. It was surrounded by enemies and was ruled by weak emperors. But all this was about to change.

    Volume I ended with the death of Emperor John V, who was so weak in stature, that he followed the orders of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and demolished the newly built walls of Constantinople. He was succeeded by his son, Manuel II Palaiologos. Manuel II had a rather different character than his father. He was a military general at heart and his goals were not just for his crumbling empire to survive, but to completely through off the yolk of the Ottomans and re-conquer all of it’s lost land. So, as soon as he ascended the throne in 1391, he got to work on building a series of alliances with the states that would be most beneficial to the empire’s progress, the Italian city states.


    A depiction of Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos in his later years


    Remembering the success the empire felt during the Crusades, he also swallowed his Orthodox pride and called upon the Pope to urge Catholic nations to help stop the Ottoman menace. He even himself embarked on a tour of Europe, from 1392 to 1397, visiting various capitals, building relations and loose alliances, and gaining promises of military aid for the next inevitable war with the Turks. His work was so successful, that by 1399, he had gained alliances with Venice, Genoa, Naples, Hungary, and Austria. All of these nations were not interested in helping the Romans, but rather in eradicating the Ottomans from Europe. In return for their help, Manuel II promised never to expand westward beyond Serbia. As soon as these promises and alliances had been secured, thousands of knights and foot soldiers from all the aforementioned Catholic nations began pouring into Constantinople. Since they had to arrive by sea, obviously not being able to cross Ottoman territory, the complete forces from all these nations were only settled in Constantinople by the spring of 1401.

    Officially, these warriors were mercenaries for the Romans, as the Catholics did not want an official outright war with the Ottomans. Nevertheless, together with Roman forces and the local Orthodox Christian rebels that would inevitably join with the army in the event of an offensive, the total amount of men ready for war with the Turks was about 35,000. And in addition to manpower, Catholic nations even helped the Romans along financially, as Western capital filled imperial coffers, giving the Romans enough wealth to supply this vast army for years to come. And so, at the dawn of the 15th century, the once crumbling Roman Empire was filled with Latin troops and wealth, and was ready to strike at the Turkish giant.


    A map of the situation as of 1401, with the Roman Empire and her unofficial allies, more accurately "providers" in green, and the Ottoman Empire, who was at war with the Timurid Empire at the time, in red
    Last edited by asd21593; 04-08-2009 at 23:19.
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  4. #4
    Black Hound of Han Enewald's Avatar
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    You actually bought the game?

  5. #5

  6. #6
    Count of Cayenne Treppe's Avatar
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    He's back again. *cheering* I've sent you an PM, but I guess you won't need my advices any longer. However, good luck and count me in as aregular reader (and hopefully commenter as well).

    edit: 35,000 soldiers? Man you already have a juggernaut as your pet? I guess after the first Greek-Ottoman War you will control ... a lot more provinces. (I was going to say all ottoman provinces on european soil, but the ai would never settle for such a peace.)
    Last edited by Treppe; 01-08-2009 at 17:25.
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    "May the sun of june be as bright as the sun of may!" - King Juan I.


  7. #7

  8. #8
    Yes! the heathen turk must be driven from byzantine lands once and for all!

  9. #9
    Romanorum Imperator Augustus asd21593's Avatar
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    Enewald: No, I've had EU3 for about 2 years now. It was CK that I didn't (and still don't) have.

    Jman47: Good to have you reading!

    Treppe: Well, I'm still not that great of an EU3 player, so I need some heavy backstory (excuses) to make the game more realistic (cheat). Unfair it may seem, but EU3 can get a bit unrealistic, especially in regards to peace treaties and AI stubbornness. Hope my minimized cheating doesn't detract readers. Any cheating that will take place will be realistic (giving myself a little extra cash to simulate Latin investments flowing into Constantinople, hiring a lot of mercenaries to simulate Catholic troops coming to Constantinople, etc.)

    Milites: Thanks!
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  10. #10
    *mundane comment to motivate you to write*

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    Major GregoryTheBruce's Avatar
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    Glorious! Even for a relative beginner in EU3 terms, the Greeks are a potent force. Never underestimate the power of the noble Greek Patriot Rebel, scourge of Latin and Turk alike! You can literally take every Greek province in under ten years with a few well-placed rebel-fundings and a large navy of galleys. Note: if you have more galleys than they do, the Ottomans will almost never challenge your navy, allowing you to run rampant in Romania* and take back your homeland!

    What a fun country for EU3...and always the best for alt-history.

    * You know which one I mean!

  12. #12
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    L Lawliet: Thanks! I'm gonna be needing a lot of those!

    GregoryTheBruce: Good to have you reading!
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  13. #13
    Romanorum Imperator Augustus asd21593's Avatar
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    Manuel II: Part One

    Emperor Manuel II officially declared war on the Ottoman Empire on April 9th 1401. Immediately, Roman-commanded armies of Catholic mercenaries marched out of Constantinople and began the invasion of Ottoman Europe. Meanwhile, a strong force of Italian and Roman ships blocked off the Sea of Marmara and prevented any Ottoman forces in Asia from crossing over the Bosporus or the Dardanelles. Not that there was a chance that Ottoman armies would cross the Sea anyway. You see, Manuel II had chosen a good date to attack, as the Turks were already losing a war in Asia Minor against the Timurids. As would later be shown, the Timurids were so overpowering the Turks in Asia, that at one point they occupied the entirety of the Asian Aegean Coast.

    So it is not surprising that the Romans got off to a good start. Without reinforcements and supplies being able to cross the Roman-Italian naval blockade, the Turkish forces in Europe were left on their own in a territory that heavily supported the empire. So, when Manuel Gabras and the First Army of Thrace encountered the Turkish garrison of Burgas on Friday the 13th, 1401, both sides knew who the victor would be. Manuel Gabras was an aristocratic man from Constantinople, who had enough military training for two men. So it may not be that surprising that he was easily able to surround the unorganized and outnumbered Turkish force and massacre them. Gabras easily secured the high ground and rained down arrows on the 613 man Turkish force for about a half hour, as the Turks tried to charge the Romans repeatedly. Finally, when the force was wittled down to less than 200, Gabras ordered his Roman cataphracts and Latin knights to charge, finally ending the slaughter. Within 2 hours, all of the 613 Turks were dead, and not a single imperial soldier had been killed, though that claim is sometimes disputed. Nevertheless, this devastating defeat of a small Turkish force lifted imperial morale and gave the Romans confidence that the Turks could be beaten.


    The massacre that took place at Burgas caused Friday the 13th to be feared by Turks, and especially European Muslims.


    As siege was laid to the so-far captured areas and towns, the Second Army of Thrace, under Elpidios Paraspondylos, a farmer’s son from the Morea, marched into northern Bulgaria. They faced relatively little opposition from any Ottoman forces until November 4th 1401, when the 6000 man army was met by a force of 1000 Turks. The two armies met at Pleven, and the Turks soon realized that they had unfortunately massively underestimated the numbers of the imperial army. So, like Burgas, Paraspondylos was able to surround the Turkish force. But, unlike Burgas, this force had better trained cavalry than the one at Burgas. So, when Paraspondylos launched a barrage of arrows, the armored Turkish horsemen were relatively well defended. So Elpidios was forced to order an early cavalry charge that caused about 150 casualties on the Roman side, however, the charge combined with infantry assaults and well aimed archery to completely wipe out another Ottoman army.


    One factor in the Roman victory at Pleven was the fact that many Bulgarian Orthodox men attacked the Turks from the rear, and later joined the imperial army.


    During this entire time, the seas were being manned by the imperial fleet, therefore Ottoman supplies could not reach their European troops. But this important blockade was almost broken when a fleet of 40 Ottoman galleys sailed into the Bosporus and met a force of 14 large imperial ships, most of which were Italian mercenaries, on February 9th 1405. Over the past 4 years, Roman troops had run rampant throughout the Balkans, sieging every Ottoman fortress, and taking them. Each capture was usually followed by a massacre of the Turkish population. By 1405, much of the Turkish and Muslim population of the Balkans had been wiped out. However, they were in very few numbers to begin with, so its not that surprising that a major war could have virtually wiped them out.

    Back to the situation on February 9th, the Ottoman galleys had somehow managed to break through the Roman sea defenses and enter the Bosporus. But while the Ottomans had an advantage in numbers, the Romans had an advantage in skill and size, for their ships were much larger. Using their ship size and the infamous Roman fire to their advantage, the imperial sailors managed to form a wedge in between the Ottoman lines, envelop one side, and sink 20 Ottoman galleys, all as the civilians of Constantinople watched from the harbors of the City. The operation ended up being devastating for the Ottomans, and wiped out half of an entire fleet, while no Roman ships had been sunk.


    This fanciful painting depicts the Battle of the Bosporus, however it inaccurately depicts the sails of the ships. It is likely that most of the ships had sails depicting the seals of their Italian hometowns, and not grand yellow double headed eagles.


    Elsewhere, on March 5th 1405, the city of Janina finally fell to the Romans after a year long siege. The siege had lasted through a very harsh Epirote winter, and therefore caused heavy casualties on both the besieged and the besiegers. Finally, as the snow melted and the disease faded away, the Romans could resume operations. They broke through the walls of the Ottoman fortress on March 3rd, and fought their way through the streets, with local help, and were finally able to penetrate the very center of the citadel and raise the imperial banner over the city on March 5th, to jubilant celebrations of the populace.


    On March 6th, the Ottoman prisoners were paraded through the streets, as the populace threw their waste at them.


    In late 1405 and 1406, an invasion of Asia Minor was being planned by Manuel II. Sultan Bayezid I had recently died, leaving the Ottoman Empire to a regency council, and the Turks had already been weakened by the war with the Timurids. With the Balkans secured, Maneul II felt his empire was ready to move beyond the original goals of the war and invade Anatolia. So in the spring of 1406, a Roman force of 12,000 men crossed the Dardanelles. The Ottomans had been devastated more by the war with the Timurids than by the war with the Romans, so when the massive Roman army arrived in Anatolia, they found little military resistance. So they marched at a leisurely pace, crushing whatever poor excuses for Turkish garrisons lay in their way. By August of 1406, they had reached their goal, the great harbor fortress of Smyrna. Once they had laid siege upon the walls, the imperial navy moved into the area, and blockaded the harbor of the city. The outnumbered Ottoman garrison was doomed from the beginning. But somehow, they had managed to pack enough provisions in the city to last them an entire year. And it did indeed last them a year. The great walls of Smyrna were not broken by the relatively non-violent siege of the Romans until August of 1407. Roman soldiers spotted the Virgin Mary hovering above the walls, and this was taken as the signal to attack. The imperial army surged forth, broke through the walls, and captured the city, all within 24 hours.


    The vision of the Theotokos upon the walls of Smyrna became legendary, and was later used to prove the superiority of Christianity to Islam.


    With Smyrna captured, all of the Ottoman Balkans, and all of the Aegean coast of Asia Minor was in Roman hands. The Ottomans, without a sultan and a sufficient army, were desperate for peace. They had no other option, aside from total annexation. So in late January of 1408, an Ottoman envoy arrived in Constantinople, and offered Manuel II an astonishingly lucrative peace deal. The Romans were to receive the entirety of all Ottoman European possessions. This was the ultimate goal of the war, so Manuel II eagerly accepted the offer, but not after feigning decline and forcing the envoy to humiliate himself and beg. Nevertheless, on February 3rd 1408, peace was officially signed in Constantinople. The peace deal had given the Romans a new lease on life, and catapulted them to regional dominance once more. Despite this massive land gain, the Roman Empire was far from being free of problems.


    A map of the area after the Treaty of the Golden Horn, the name comes from the fact that it was actually signed aboard a neutral merchant ship

    Last edited by asd21593; 04-08-2009 at 23:23.
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  14. #14
    Black Hound of Han Enewald's Avatar
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    Where did you get money to raise an army of 12k?
    And where did those 14 ships come!

    I thought Byzantine fleet had been rotting since the beginning of Palailogoi.
    Although several of them tried to create a new fleet, only fail one after one...

    Total annexation being the other choice?
    Why didn't you annex them?

    Looks like those 'battles' were rather bloodless.
    The enemy kept surrendering without a fight...

    Furthermore, Manuels skills are awful.

    PS, this small scale mockery is just expressing my love for Byzantium and Byzantine AARs.

  15. #15
    Great job so far!

    of course- Venice and the remaining crusader states will have to be removed from greece, as well as anatolia reconquered and converted.

    although the latins are friendly as of now, lets not forget the the betrayal of the fourth crusade, shall we?

  16. #16
    Captain Pirate Z's Avatar
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    I suspect that there's a hefty price tag attached to all this help.

    I'd like to know how you got all these forces in game, though
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  17. #17
    Romanorum Imperator Augustus asd21593's Avatar
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    Enewald: Ahem, some alt-twentyone help to get things moving

    In the naval battle, I actually had 3 ships, the Turks had 4, two of which I sunk. But, being a reader of my past AARs, I'm sure you know of my fondness for editing the numbers for added t3h 3p1cn355.

    Total annexation wasn't a choice, since I didn't occupy every Ottoman province, and the Ottomans weren't a one province nation. Like I said, my AARs are usually loosely based on the game and often add interesting out of game ideas.

    As for Manuel II's stats, those were his stats at the very beginning of the game, they improved a lot as soon as the game got started.

    Jman47: Indeed, but much of the empire's future will be up to you

    Pirate Z: Yes, and that will be explained in the next update. Like I said to Enewald, those forces were simply recruited mercenaries in game, with fancy explanations in the AAR.
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  18. #18
    Black Hound of Han Enewald's Avatar
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    You're just like a Byzantine author I'm currently reading.
    He be Michael Psellus.
    A good book.
    And quite entertaining also, when one gets to know how he tends to tale some facts and leaves other ones out.
    And keeps constantly glorifying his friends while endangering the foes.

  19. #19
    Romanorum Imperator Augustus asd21593's Avatar
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    Manuel II: Part Two

    As explained beforehand, the vast majority of imperial forces in the First Roman-Ottoman War were Italian mercenaries. So it is not surprising that the Romans had a rather big problem on their hands after the war had ended. About 25,000 foreign soldiers were on their soil, now demanding their pay. While before the war, Latin capital had flowed into Constantinople, much of it had been spent frivolously and by 1408, over three quarters of it was gone. When the Latins realized that they would not be paid the amount that they had been expecting, they began to pillage much of the Bulgaria, the area they were stationed in. The few Roman troops that had been deployed, marched off to Bulgaria, but were repeatedly pushed back.

    The Latins were so successful in Bulgaria, that they managed to plant the seeds of a Bulgarian independence movement, reminding the locals of the former Bulgarian Empire, a nation that had once been a scourge of the Roman Empire. With a growing resentment of Roman rule in Bulgaria, the stability of the empire was threatened. After being satisfied with their pillaging, most of the Italian mercenaries recklessly marched home with their loot. But they left in their wake a revolt fueled by Bulgarian nationalism and some remaining mercenaries, so Manuel Gabras took control of the small ethnically Roman army, and laid a thinly lined siege to Bulgaria. But with winter looming on the horizon, Gabras recognized that he had to make a move, so he engaged the Bulgarian rebels on September 6th 1408.

    The Bulgarians under their rebel leader, who was a distant relative of the former Bulgarian imperial line, Krasimir Peyachevich, numbered around 6,000 men, most of whom were Latin veterans of the Roman-Ottoman War. The Romans numbered 5,000 men, which at the time was the entirety of the imperial army, not counting city garrisons. Therefore, the battle that was about to take place was critical to empire’s very survival. Defeat would mean annihilation for the entire army of the empire, and would let Peyachevich run wild throughout the Balkans. But the Romans had an advantage with their highly trained 3,000 cataphracts.

    Outside Sofia, Gabras immediately seized the high ground, cutting a swathe through the rebel lines with his cataphracts. From the high ground, imperial archers rained down arrows upon the Bulgarians, decimating them. Peyachevich soon realized the desperateness of the situation and ordered a full scale charge up the hill. But without proper organization, the rebel cavalry was behind the infantry in the charge. So, in the heat and fury of battle, the Bulgarian steeds charged headlong up the hill, trampling rebel infantry in their way. By the time the Bulgarians reached the Romans, they were tired and decimated, and so, when fighting ensued, were massacred even more, but not until they had inflicted heavy casualties upon the Roman cavalry as well.


    Manuel Gabras brutally executed the rebel prisoners he captured outside Sofia, a massacre that would remain in the Bulgarian psyche for years


    But the Bulgarian rebellion was not over yet. Throughout the winter, the Bulgarians marched toward the newly gained frontier province of Silistria. Gabras felt that the winter would inflict heavy enough casualties, so he did not pursue until February of 1409. On February 19th, he engaged Krasimir for the second time. This time, the Romans easily defeated the fatigued, cold, hungry, and disease ridden Bulgarians. With a few cataphract charges and encirclements, the Bulgarians were completely massacred and Krasimir was captured. He was tortured until he revealed every detailed he knew about the rebellion, its organizers, and how it was funded. This confession would be key to the empire’s future.


    The Bulgarian army was so destroyed in Silistria, that only Peyachevich and a few of his official guards survived


    It was revealed that in addition to the Italian mercenaries fighting alongside the Bulgarians, secret Italian envoys had been funding the Bulgarian rebels since 1407. When news reached Manuel II, he was infuriated. But it is not surprising that the Italian city states tried to sabotage the Romans. The Italians felt that the empire had gained too much out of the war, and saw an opportunity to destabilize it in a time of weakness. But thanks to Gabras’ cunning and the skilled cataphract cavalry, they were thwarted. But the defeat of the Bulgarians was not enough for Manuel II. It was bad enough that the Italians controlled key regions of Greece, but their funding of a rebellion in imperial territory pushed them over the edge, not even their help in the Ottoman war could convince Manuel II to not declare war. So Manuel II made preparations, enforced en masse recruitment across the Balkans, and war was declared in November of 1411.
    Last edited by asd21593; 04-08-2009 at 23:26.
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    You know, the game would be more challenging if you would adjust the rebels a bit.
    It's too easy when the rebels don't reinforce nor assault.

    Btw, it's historically wrong to talk about Greeks.
    They're ROMANS!!!

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