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Thread: God's Warriors: the story of the Hussite Reformation

  1. #21
    Dei Gratia author dharper's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Winner View Post
    To be honest, the event chain got a bit broken, so I had to manually help things here and then. It doesn't matter much, the revolution will happen anyway
    That's not surprising, given what I've seen. The problem is that my philosophy is to have events happen because of causes, not on particular dates...but because Hussitism owes so much of its history to two events that can happen at wildly different times in the game, the game rarely if ever plays out as it did historically. For the human player of Bohemia, it is frustrating to see 1417 pass by without so much of a mention of the Hussites - even if it's for a good reason. In-game, their appearance is tied to the end of the schism, which can happen at many different times, and the Hussite Wars are tied to the death of the Bohemian king, which can take thirty years from that if you're unlucky. I should probably try to come up with some alternate-history possibilities for the Hussite Wars beginning.

    This AAR is the first time I've gotten detailed feedback about the whole process, so I am very interested in it - and in your opinions about what needs changing...and especially how. For the sake of gameplay and fun I'm willing to bend history and theory. I could also use more ideas of hussite-specific events (both random and historical). Right now, the event chain is really a bare bones skeleton, and it shows.

    You'll be interested to know that for MMP2, one of the enhancements planned for the religious aspect is to include an event chain where a Hussite Bohemia becomes the target of a Catholic crusade. Unfortunately in the game right now you're unlikely to see much fuss made if and when you do convert. In addition, there will be an event which will help convince the AI to condemn Lollardy when the schism ends.

    Anyway, this is all off-topic - this is your AAR, and a very promising one indeed! I just want to let you know that I will definitely be following it and taking notes. Please feel free to send me PMs about ideas you might have, too.
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  2. #22
    Lt. General Winner's Avatar

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    ***
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    ***



    The territories east of Bohemia were known to contemporaries under the name “Upper Hungary” suggesting that the people living there were Hungarians. The fact was that a vast majority of the population was of Slavic origin and most of people of this particular ethnic group referred to themselves as “Slovakians” or “Slovaks” [1]. They were ruled by Hungarian aristocracy which subjected its Slavic subjects to a rule which was generally much harsher than it was typical even for this period of history. The urban population in Upper Hungary was mostly made of Hungarians and Germans, which meant that only very few Slovaks had ever received any education at all – even the priests were educated only in Latin and Hungarian. Such oppression led many Slovaks who had have that option to leave Upper Hungary and seek fortune elsewhere, usually in culturally close Slavic countries like Poland and especially Bohemia, whose inhabitants spoke a very similar mutually intelligible language [2]. This oppression also partly explains why so many Slovaks who settled in Moravia, the easternmost province of the Bohemian kingdom, embraced the Hussite religion.


    Chalice - the symbol of the Hussites


    Hussite religion was best suited to people living under constant oppression by the Church or the aristocracy. It was a religion of people who had have enough of injustice, corruption, maltreatment and hypocrisy displayed by authorities of any kind, so it comes as no surprise that it appealed greatly to Slovaks for whom injustice and maltreatment were the words best describing their everyday existence. At the same time, similar language made it easier for them to listen to and to understand Hus’s ideas which were being tirelessly explained by Hussite priests.

    When the first Hussite rebellion in Moravia was crushed by Austrian forces, many of the Slovak converts (accompanied by a small number of Hussite preachers) returned to Upper Hungary and started to communicate Hussite ideas to the local population. It comes without saying that teachings like that about just aristocracy found a fertile ground among the disaffected Slovakian peasants. Soon the Hussite faith began to spread in form of underground (and highly illegal) rural movement which encompassed also the Slovakian national ambitions. Hussites were organizing secret sermons, charity and even few schools for Slovaks of higher social standing. Being a Hussite became a sign of rejecting the Hungarian oppression and so the power base of the movement grew rapidly.

    Hungarian crackdowns against this movement led to a series of uprising against Hungarian rule in the early 1450s. Normally any such rebellion would have been drowned in blood as the Hungarian tradition dictated but unfortunately the 1450s were not the brightest period in Hungarian history. A dragged war with the Ottoman Turks had consumed too much money and manpower and left Hungary on the verge of collapse. The Slovaks couldn’t have picked a better time. Strengthened by their new faith and organized by educated émigrés, they managed to defeat Hungarian garrisons in Upper Hungary and took control not only of the countryside, but also the towns, including the fortified town of Pressburg (Bratislava) [3].


    Slovak revolt


    This success was hailed by the Bohemian Hussites who naturally supported their Slovak brethren, and presented a new dilemma to the Bohemian king. On one side, there were his Hussite subjects who were pressing him to support the Slovak rebels. Some argued that the king’s declared protection of Hussite faith was not officially limited by the borders of his own kingdom and therefore Hussites in neighboring countries had the same right to enjoy it. Cultural proximity between Czech and Slovak peoples was another argument he heard often from Hussite representative. On the other hand, nation states as we know them today didn’t exist in the 15th century, therefore territorial claims based on ethnic arguments had exactly zero chance of being accepted as legitimate. The same goes to the religious argument raised by the Hussites; their faith was viewed as nothing but heresy in the rest of Catholic Europe and Ladislav’s tolerance of it was a source of great suspicion. Declaring a protection of heretics in other sovereign countries as an official foreign policy would have undoubtedly ruined Bohemian relations with most of Europe and led to a formation of anti-Bohemian alliances.

    Ladislav chose to walk the middle line. He ordered establishment of a special council composed of scholars, jurists and diplomats and tasked it with finding a legal argument which he could eventually use to claim Upper Hungary for the Bohemian crown. He never actually believed they would find anything, but it calmed down the Hussites in his own kingdom. The bigger was his surprise when the council announced that it had found a legal basis for the claim. Council scholars apparently found nearly 500 years old documents which supposedly proved that Bohemia as the legal successor of Great Moravian principality had never given up claims on the lands east of Moravia. As a supporting argument they mentioned king’s Sigismund lease of some Slovak lands to Moravian margrave in 1385. Having no other option, Ladislav reluctantly announced the claim knowing it would ruin his relations with Hungary [4].


    Great Moravia (it was not a kingdom, but a principality) in the 9th century


    Fortunately, Hungary was in no position to do anything else but protest diplomatically, since Ottoman troops were closing on Buda and Pest, Upper Hungary was controlled by rebels and Croatia openly threatened to separate from Hungary if its autonomy wasn’t broadened. The real opposition to Ladislav’s move would thus come from within the ranks of Bohemian aristocracy.


    ------


    [1] This has nothing to do with the AAR, but I tried to find the etymological basis of the name. Most likely it is related to “Slověné”, the name proto-Slavic peoples used for themselves (in English, it’s simply “Slav”). Slovenia (the ex-Yugoslavian country) also derives its name from it which often causes a bit of confusion in Western Europe, because the flags of the two nations look similar too.
    On a funny note, “Slověné” means literally “people of the word” or “people who speak” while “Niemtsi”, the old term for Germans used in many different forms in most Slavic languages (Němci in Czech, Niemcy in Polish), derives from “niemi” or “němý” so it literally means “mute people” or “people who can’t speak”. Personally, I find it very funny, since most people don’t even realize it when they’re saying it.

    [2] It is baffling to me how could such a small nation manage to retain its language during 1000 years of Hungarian rule. Remember that it took the English only few centuries to force majority of Irish to abandon their language and I don’t think they were oppressed more than the Slovaks. Or perhaps I am wrong here. Even more interesting is the fact that Slovak language had remained very close to Czech, despite the long separation of the two nations.

    [3] In other words, heretic rebels took control of Slovakia. Though they were not exactly Hussite, I decided to incorporate it into the story because it provided me with a nice justification for my claims and gave me an explanation for the 2nd Hussite revolution in Moravia (coming soon).

    [4] In the game, I used a spy mission to produce claim for one Slovak province. I got two more cores in an event. I know this explanation sucks, but I couldn’t come up with a better one. Great Moravia did exist and present-day Slovakia had been part of it until it was overrun by Magyars in the 10th century.
    One more thing - I am using the term Upper Hungary, which wasn't used in the 15th century, but I don't know about a better one. "Slovakia" is a term that first appeared in the 20th century.
    Last edited by Winner; 19-05-2009 at 12:35.
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  3. #23
    Black Hound of Han Enewald's Avatar
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    Niemi means in finnish a peninsula.
    Isn't it nemezkii in russian?

  4. #24
    Lt. General Winner's Avatar

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    Quote Originally Posted by Enewald View Post
    Niemi means in finnish a peninsula.
    Isn't it nemezkii in russian?
    My guess is that would be "German" - adjective.
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  5. #25
    Dei Gratia author dharper's Avatar
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    Just to be clear here, Ladislav is still Catholic, is he not? How common are Hussites in Bohemia at this point?
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  6. #26
    Lt. General Winner's Avatar

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    Quote Originally Posted by dharper View Post
    Just to be clear here, Ladislav is still Catholic, is he not? How common are Hussites in Bohemia at this point?
    Nobody knows for sure Officially he's a Catholic, but there are rumors that he is in fact a secret Hussite.

    He's pretty much like one later Austrian ruler whose name I don't remember, who was a secret Protestant his whole life and refused Catholic rituals only on his deathbed.

    How common are they, well, that's hard to tell without modern-day opinion polls We're approaching mid 15th century, so historically the Hussite revolution should be long over. In TTL however, Hussite faith keeps spreading among peasants, burgers and gentry. I guess they're a slight majority in most ethnic Czech provinces, especially Moravia, but the higher aristocracy which still holds most power remains Catholic, just as the German provinces.

    We're quickly approaching the breaking point. The Hussites are beginning to realize the power behind their numbers and are less and less willing to put up with the oppression, while the Catholic aristocracy is trying to bend Ladislav's tolerance decrees and squeeze some more money from the Hussite population...

    EDIT: Just a question - is the AI of countries which convert to Hussite religion programmed to convert its remaining provinces to the OTF? I played a game as France and just for fun, I reloaded as Bohemia, adopted the 4 articles, and then switched back to France. Bohemia thn didn't convert any of its provinces - was that because of the Ecumenism nat. idea? Hungary then somehow became hussite too (probably because hussite rebels captured Budapest), but didn't convert any provinces either...
    Last edited by Winner; 17-02-2009 at 08:21.
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  7. #27
    Mostly Harmless oddman's Avatar
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    This AAR is great. Don't know whether I'd already mentioned it. Just be aware that I'm following; I'm a bit of lurker and post only rarely. Sorry.

  8. #28
    Lt. General Winner's Avatar

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    ***
    Outbreak
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    Ladislav I initially didn’t take his claims on Upper Hungary very seriously; he simply wanted to calm down the Hussites who were asking for an intervention and then wait how the situation would develop. What he didn’t fully take into consideration was the reaction of mostly Catholic aristocracy in the country. Unlike the king, the nobles were very concerned about the situation. There were fears that if the Slovak rebels had succeeded, they might have joined forces with the Hussites in Moravia and invade. Others feared that the king meant his claims seriously and that he was going to incorporate Upper Hungary by force and thus bring even more Hussites into the kingdom. Both alternatives were bad for Catholic aristocrats who watched the rising numbers of Hussites in Bohemia with fear. They wanted to maintain the status quo, but they felt that the balance of power was shifting against them.

    Therefore, they decided to act. On a meeting in Olomouc, the representatives of the most important Catholic noble families in Moravia decided to establish and fund “mounted patrols” along the borders with Hungary. The patrols were given authority to arrest anybody who would try to cross the border in any direction as a smuggler or traitor and hand him over to provincial court in Brno for punishment. This, they hoped, would cut the Slovak rebels from the Moravian Hussites and prevent any cooperation between them. Moravian burgers objected to this and argued that it would harm their trade with Hungary, but Ladislav’s hands were tied by his own decrees against smuggling, which provided legal justification for the noblemen’s actions [1].


    "Mounted patrol" in action


    The mounted patrols were made up of hired mercenaries from all over Bohemia and abroad. Though the nobles promised to pay them good, the actual situation was very disappointing as most noblemen found that maintaining such a force would be very expensive. They mostly tried to get out of their obligations by shifting the responsibility to others and so the mercenaries received only a fraction of the pay they were promised. Some deserted, but others found that their mandate was so robust and flexible, that practically anybody could be accused of being a traitor or a smuggler. Gradually, the mounted patrols moved inland where they began robbing travelers, mostly merchants and peasants on their way to town to sell their products. Within months, all major trade routes between Moravia and neighboring provinces became so dangerous that trading had almost ceased. Though some nobles distanced themselves from the marauders, others turned a blind eye in exchange for a share of the spoils.

    The collapse of trade was a nothing but a catastrophe for the Moravian towns and their inhabitants, who were dependant on trade just like burghers elsewhere in Central Europe. Moreover, all towns in this period of history depended on food imported from the countryside; with these imports compromised, a famine was becoming a possibility. When the governor of Moravia refused the request to use town militias to restore order in the countryside arguing that he needed king’s approval for that – well-knowing that the king was on a visit in France and that he was not due to return for at least another 3 months – it was the last straw.


    Defenestration of Brno


    On July 3, 1451, an angry crowd of townspeople led by prominent Hussite leaders stormed the town hall in Brno, made their way into the governor’s office, grabbed him and threw him out of the window. Although he survived the “defenestration” [2] as the windows were not too high, he didn’t escape the mob waiting in the courtyard and was promptly lynched. Other high-ranking officials followed him as they were hunted in the corridors of the building. Once the rebels took control of Brno, they sent out representatives to other towns, which quickly joined the rebellion. Finally, the peasants rose up too, led by local Hussite gentry. In just two weeks, most of Moravia declared for the rebels, whose leaders then met in Brno and agreed on a common programme.

    First thing on the agenda was to get rid of the “mounted patrols”. This was accomplished quickly; after some captured mercenaries suffered a terrible torture in front of cheering crowds followed by even more gruesome execution, the others quickly realized that the good times of risk-free plundering were over and either left Moravia or found refuge in forts held by Catholic nobles, who were desperately trying to organize their forces to fight the rebels.

    But this was not all. This time, the Hussite revolutionaries wouldn’t settle with restoring the status quo; this time they were about to change the rules of the game once and for all.


    Mostly peasants? Bah!



    ------


    [1] In game, you sometimes get events related to smuggling. You can either organize it, support it or don’t get involved when your own country is concerned; or you can denounce it, ask some money or expose it when your neighbors are doing it. Ladislav is of course a very honorable king so he naturally refused to take part in anything like this.

    [2] From Latin fenestra (window). Defenestration is a word describing an act of throwing someone out of a window. It’s actually a well-known word here in Czech Rep., people often use it mostly when they’re joking about having a 3rd one in Prague.
    Historically, the 1st Defenestration of Prague marked the beginning of the so-called Hussite revolution which then led to the Hussite wars; Hussite townsfolk threw Catholic leaders of Prague out of windows and then stabbed them. The 2nd one took place two centuries later when the Protestants threw Catholic/Hapsburg councillors out of the windows of the Prague Castle; this time they survived the fall because they landed softly in the moat filled with trash and waste. This 2nd Defenestration led to an uprising of the Protestant Estates against the Hapsburg rule which sparked the 30 Years War. In short, when there are people being thrown out of windows in Bohemia, something bad is going to happen to Europe.
    Last edited by Winner; 19-05-2009 at 12:36.
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  9. #29
    Dei Gratia author dharper's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Winner View Post
    EDIT: Just a question - is the AI of countries which convert to Hussite religion programmed to convert its remaining provinces to the OTF? I played a game as France and just for fun, I reloaded as Bohemia, adopted the 4 articles, and then switched back to France. Bohemia thn didn't convert any of its provinces - was that because of the Ecumenism nat. idea? Hungary then somehow became hussite too (probably because hussite rebels captured Budapest), but didn't convert any provinces either...
    In general, the AI only very rarely uses missionaries. This drives me up the wall - I can't figure out why. In repeated tests, the only country that used more than one in a 10-year-period was the Ottoman Empire, who often used half of all missionaries in the world. They didn't have any religious national ideas, nor a fantastic monarch, nor a higher income than other countries, nor particularly uncommon slider settings, nor a theocratic state, nor a particularly good chance of success...honestly, I'm baffled as to why they send missionaries (I'd like them to stop!) and why other countries don't (I'd like them to do so!). I've tried changing the price of missionaries, making them more common, increasing the placement chance, etc...all to no avail.

    There is an AI command to tell the AI to value converting provinces more...but it must be specific provinces. So in other words, I can tell Russia to want to convert Kazan province, but not to want to convert Steppe provinces, or Muslim provinces, or any province at all. And the idea of writing code to get the AI to value converting all of its provinces is...well...frightening. Way too much work, and it could slow down the game a lot. I'm not even sure if it would work!

    I'm currently considering creating a province decision for the AI only that lets them convert a province at the cost of 5 missionaries and some money, because I'm just not seeing any missionary work done by the AI except in rare cases, and it's hurting Russia and Spain a great deal.
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  10. #30
    Lt. General Winner's Avatar

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    Quote Originally Posted by oddman View Post
    This AAR is great. Don't know whether I'd already mentioned it. Just be aware that I'm following; I'm a bit of lurker and post only rarely. Sorry.
    Thank you anyway

    Quote Originally Posted by dharper View Post
    In general, the AI only very rarely uses missionaries. This drives me up the wall - I can't figure out why. In repeated tests, the only country that used more than one in a 10-year-period was the Ottoman Empire, who often used half of all missionaries in the world. They didn't have any religious national ideas, nor a fantastic monarch, nor a higher income than other countries, nor particularly uncommon slider settings, nor a theocratic state, nor a particularly good chance of success...honestly, I'm baffled as to why they send missionaries (I'd like them to stop!) and why other countries don't (I'd like them to do so!). I've tried changing the price of missionaries, making them more common, increasing the placement chance, etc...all to no avail.
    So that is why the Ottomans always try to convert Greeks to Islam, while Mexico rarely becomes Catholic?

    I'm currently considering creating a province decision for the AI only that lets them convert a province at the cost of 5 missionaries and some money, because I'm just not seeing any missionary work done by the AI except in rare cases, and it's hurting Russia and Spain a great deal.
    Can't you just make a decision which would order the AI to send a missionary if the province had other than the state religion and the chance of converting it would be above, say, 5%? Of course more conditions would be needed (no ecumenism/humanist tolerace etc.).

    In my games I sometimes reload as another nations and place the missionaries for them, since the AI is too stupid to do that itself. Looks like I'll have to do that in this game too, since the AI is usually even less willing to spread the Hussite religion (they're stubborn heretics, after all ).
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  11. #31
    Voice of Confusion Meothar's Avatar
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    Very good AAR, keep it going.

    You don't have to reload, use the "tag XYZ" console command (with XYZ tag of nation you switch to), this is much faster.

  12. #32
    Black Hound of Han Enewald's Avatar
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    The second time I meet defenestration on these forums.
    Shall the hussites succeed?

  13. #33
    Lt. General Winner's Avatar

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    Quote Originally Posted by Meothar View Post
    Very good AAR, keep it going.
    Thanks, I'll try

    You don't have to reload, use the "tag XYZ" console command (with XYZ tag of nation you switch to), this is much faster.
    I didn't even know it was possible to switch in game, thanks for the tip.

    Quote Originally Posted by Enewald View Post
    The second time I meet defenestration on these forums.

    Shall the hussites succeed?
    They sure hope so But yeah, I think I've kept you waiting for long enough now
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  14. #34
    Dei Gratia author dharper's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Winner View Post
    Can't you just make a decision which would order the AI to send a missionary if the province had other than the state religion and the chance of converting it would be above, say, 5%? Of course more conditions would be needed (no ecumenism/humanist tolerace etc.).
    There's no "send missionary" command. At best I can simulate it by subtracting a missionary and some cash and giving a percentage chance of converting the province, but it would be an instant conversion and would not actually send a missionary.
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  15. #35
    Lt. General Winner's Avatar

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    Quote Originally Posted by dharper View Post
    There's no "send missionary" command. At best I can simulate it by subtracting a missionary and some cash and giving a percentage chance of converting the province, but it would be an instant conversion and would not actually send a missionary.
    Hm. Doesn't it depend on the size of the country and its income? The Ottomans are not only the ones who send out most missionaries, I also observed they often invest into high level forts, manufacturies and other buildings. Their provinces often end up as the most developed in the game by the 18th century. Also, they usually end up with Constitutional sultanate as their government instead of the Absolute one, as they should from the historical perspective.

    Never mind, that's enough off topic for now
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  16. #36
    General gabor's Avatar
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    huh, defenestration, i wonder what it'll lead bohemia to and how the king will respond
    fantastic aar!

    Quote Originally Posted by dharper View Post
    There's no "send missionary" command. At best I can simulate it by subtracting a missionary and some cash and giving a percentage chance of converting the province, but it would be an instant conversion and would not actually send a missionary.
    how about reintroducing (one type of) missions, for bigger AI countries, once every 5 or so years, instead of 'do nothing' mission AI might get 'convert province X' mission? (pbly some check on the odds here.) Wouldn't be game-breaking as there are no other mission options for AI and may help a lot as in vanilla AI seems to be persistant in completing missions, what do you think?

  17. #37
    Dei Gratia author dharper's Avatar
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    Folks, perhaps we could take the discussion of missionaries in Magna Mundi to the Magna Mundi forums? It's detracting from an excellent AAR.
    A mod for Europa Universalis IV that enhances religion in the age of faith and reason
    Want to play as a Sikh? Want Jewish minorities? Want a turbulent Reformation? This mod is for you.
    Game concepts explained on the Wiki
    Current status: 98% complete and compatible with Conquest of Paradise
    Download available April 9, 2014) or subscribe on Steam to get updates automatically
    Project Cryptic: 10% complete

  18. #38
    Lt. General Winner's Avatar

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    ***
    Point of no return
    ***



    The 2nd Hussite revolution in Moravia was infinitely better organized than the first one. Once the leaders had agreed on their programme and dealt with the “mounted patrols”, they started to build a common army to defend the revolution. Due to the horrors of the months of mercenary plundering, hiring foreign mercenaries was out of question; thus the rebels had no choice but to build an army of their own. The core of this new army was based on veteran royal army officers, Hussite zemans [1] and experienced rebel soldiers from the Slovak lands. With funds provided by Moravian towns, they established military training camps where peasant and townsmen volunteers could be forged into soldiers.



    Hussite rebels siege a Catholic-held castle


    It turned out that their zeal and determination constituted an immense advantage over the mercenary soldiers and conscripted peasants serving in the Catholic noblemen’s armies. One by one, Catholic forts, castles and strongholds were falling to Hussite rebel forces. Captured mercenaries were usually executed without mercy, but the Hussites showed mercy to peasant conscripts, many of whom then joined the rebellion. Catholic nobles who surrendered and converted to Hussite faith were spared as well and could even retain most of their property. The more stubborn one, however, were subjected to public trials, which ended mostly with them being stripped of their possessions and expelled from Hussite-controlled territory. The nobles who were found guilty of aiding the mercenary bands and refused to repent were publicly executed. Though executing nobles was shocking to most of contemporary Europeans, the Hussites believed in Hus’s teachings about righteous aristocracy and thus in their eyes, a noble who committed crimes against the people he swore to protect lost the right to be treated differently then any other commoner. Another prime target for the rebels was Catholic monasteries, churches and Church-owned property, which was expropriated and divided between towns and Hussite aristocracy.

    To Ladislav I, the whole affair felt like déja vu; for the second time in his reign he faced a Hussite rebellion in Moravia. This time, however, the situation was much worse than before. The irony was almost overwhelming when he realized, that the army he created to be fanatically loyal was now useless, because he couldn’t count on the willingness of his Hussite soldiers to fight their brothers in faith. After he acquainted himself with the situation, he knew that he wouldn’t be able to walk the middle line and defuse the crisis by making some minor concessions. The rebellion wasn’t directed against him and his rule; the rebels wanted to get rid of Catholic oppression and have their faith recognized as dominant in Moravia. Unfortunately, granting them that would surely enrage the Pope, who was opposed to a mere tolerance of the “heretics and apostates” in his realm. Openly recognizing Hussite faith as being equal to Catholic would alienate most of Europe. On the other hand, if the king tried to suppress the rebels by force, he would risk a general uprising against himself that could set the whole country into turmoil. So the choice he had to make was: did he rather want to risk the wrath of the Papacy, or his own throne?

    There was one more thing that influenced the king’s decision, which is often being omitted. When the second revolution began, Ladislav was 41 years old. Though from today’s perspective he was just a middle-aged men with decades of life before him, in the 15th century this meant he was getting old. Most rulers in that time tried to reconcile with God as the day of their death approached, and Ladislav was not exception. He had long believed that the teachings of Hus held some merit and the older he got the more disgusted was he with the state of the Catholic Church. One day he realized that in his mind, he became a Hussite and that there was no way back. Of course he couldn’t admit it in public, so he pretended to be a good Catholic king despite all the disagreements between him and the Pope that appeared over the decades. But now, he felt, the God had given him the last chance to follow the righteous path and end the hypocrisy which had become a part of his life.




    Therefore in April 1452, he summoned the Estates of the Realm to Prague to discuss the response to the Moravian rebellion. Representatives of the Moravian Hussites were also invited, which caused many controversies. In a speech he delivered to a silent crowd, he explained that under the circumstances, it was no longer possible for him to conceal his true beliefs. Instead of expected denunciation of the rebels, the king declared himself a Hussite, which was too much for the Catholics to take; they started shouting and booing in an attempt to stop the king from continuing. But Ladislav was resolute. He raised his voice and announced that he had come to an agreement with the Hussites which he presented to the Estates in the form of “Four Articles” and called a vote on whether or not should they become the basic law in the kingdom.



    1. The Holy Sacrament is to be given freely in both kinds to all Christians in Bohemia, and to those elsewhere who adhere to the true faith.
    2. All mortal sins shall be punished and extirpated by those whose office it is so to do. [2]
    3. The word of God is to be freely and truthfully preached by the priests of the Lord, and by worthy deacons.
    4. The priests in the time of the law of grace shall claim no ownership of worldly possessions.


    At this point, the Catholics began leaving the hall in protest to this outrage, but the king called the vote anyway and the Articles (later called Compacta of Prague) were passed. Then he proposed a reform of the Hussite movement into a national Church led by an elected archbishop, and again the proposal was passed. Right after that, Jan Rokycana [3], a respected Hussite theologian, was elected as the first archbishop to lead the reformed Hussite Church. The king promised to tolerate the Catholic Church in Bohemia to the same extent the Hussites were tolerated before, but declared that the Hussite religion, his religion, would henceforth be the official religion in Bohemia.

    Two weeks later, the Pope excommunicated Ladislav I from the Holy Catholic Church and called upon all true Catholic rulers to use their power to restore the true faith in the Bohemian lands. It was clear than there was no turning back now.


    Doesn't matter anymore...


    ------


    [1] Zemans were lesser nobles in Bohemia and some other countries in Central Europe.

    [2] This was aimed mostly against the Catholic nobles who were abusing their authority and generally to fight corruption all over Bohemia.

    [3] Or John of Rokycany, if you prefer. Historically, he led the Hussite “church” (they were not separated from the Catholic Church in OTL) after the Four Articles of Prague were adopted.
    Last edited by Winner; 19-05-2009 at 12:38.
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  19. #39
    Black Hound of Han Enewald's Avatar
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    Woot, led the heretics comes, for one can not beat a hussite army!

  20. #40
    Lt. General Winner's Avatar

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    Quote Originally Posted by gabor View Post
    huh, defenestration, i wonder what it'll lead bohemia to and how the king will respond
    fantastic aar!
    Thanks! I hope I get to the war-related stuff soon.

    Quote Originally Posted by Enewald View Post
    Woot, led the heretics comes, for one can not beat a hussite army!
    Well, I certainly hope so!
    HoI2, mod 1914 -- Could Schlieffen Plan have led to a German victory in the Great War? Find out in this AAR! -- Completed

    "Superior training and superior weaponry have, when taken together, a geometric effect on overall military strength. Well-trained, well-equipped troops can stand up to many more times their lesser brethren than linear arithmetic would seem to indicate." - Spartan Battle Manual

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