2 Sep 31 BC - Battle of Actium
Cleopatra and Marc Antony narrowly defeat Octavian and preserve their dominion over Egypt. Ptolemaic Egypt would later be awarded the territories around the levant, Cyprus, and Libya. However many would not last. Aug 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria
Octavian makes a second attempt to crush Marc Antony, only to be defeated in battle and humiliated.27 - 5 BC - Egyptian Upheaval - Prolonged Roman Civil War
After Octavian's defeat, his ability to maintain confidence with the senate deterioriated, and he was eventually stripped of power. The void in power lead to further conflict between many political upstarts, with time, the republic could be restored. Ptolemaic Egypt would not be without its problems either, however. The native Egyptians were not exactly content with Hellenic rule and once the conflict with Rome had ended, many revolts would break out, as there was no sign of any change happening in Marc Antony's and Cleopatra's government. Eventually the revolts reached a cresendo and many of Antony's troops deserted and returned to Rome, while still others stayed. Finally on the April of 11 BC, Antony and Cleopatra were disposed and murdered. One of the Egyptian leaders who called himself by the name of Amyrtaeus II (after the first Amyrtaeus who had overthrown Persian Rule 300 years earlier) proclaimed himself Pharaoh and began the extremely difficult task of consolidating power and keeping Egypt united.5 BC - 9 AD - Consolidating Power - Second War with Rome
Not all of Marc Antony's officers fled Egypt during the revolts and instead those to work with the new Pharaoh. Amyrtaeus II understood Egypt's lack of a properly trained home-grown army and worked closesly with Antony's Former Officers to train a proper fighting force. It took time but Egypt had eventually raised 10,000 regular troops trained on Roman Fighting doctrine. On the June of 4 AD the Roman Republic would send a small force to attempt to retake the lands stolen by Marc Antony. They would succeed in retaking Libya, Palestine, and Cyprus, but were unable to defeat Amyrtaeus II's legions in battle. The war would be considered a victory by both sides. Rome would claim victory based on their retaking of lost territory, and Egypt would call it a victory based on their preservation of independence.***Period of Restoration***
1st & 2nd Century AD - Revival of the Egyptian Priesthood, Nobility & Pharaonic Rule
While Amyrtaeus II would be considered the first Pharaoh of the new "Forth Kingdom", he did not build any great monuments, nor were there any busts or portraits made of him. No one knows what he looked like. The only written accounts of him come from what the Romans knew. It is also widely accepted that he did not manage to create a proper dynasty for himself and was succeeded by one of his native rivals. His successors would however follow his policies and would only focus on consolidating power in Egypt and maintaining sovereignty. With time, Roman fighting tactics would be replaced with improved Egyptian doctrines, and the Roman weapons would be replaced with updated versions of traditional Egyptian weapons. The Roman Gladius would be replaced with the Egyptian Khopesh, Egyptian Cavalry units would return to using improved and updated Chariots (these were ideal for fighting in the desert) and Egyptian officers would be drawn directly from the native nobility. Ethnic Romans and Greeks would continue to live in Egypt, but the high status they once enjoyed would slowly disappear. 3rd Century AD - Egyptian Nationalism Takes Root
That is to say there wasn't civil unrest, however, much of it would come later as the Christians begin to arrive in larger numbers in the 3rd and 4th centuries...
As the Roman Republic began to crumble, Egyptians themselves began to truly take pride in being Egyptian. With time they would develope a true sense of nationalism, before the word even came to exist. Cities that once bore greek names would finally have thier original Egyptian names returned to them. The most important of which, Heliopolis, would have its name restored to Lunu. And with time, Lunu would return to prominence as the centuries went forward.Late 3rd Century - Retaking Lost Lands
Brief wars would be fought with the Romans to take back the lands awarded by Marc Antony, eventually Judea, and Cyprus would fall under Egyptian Control, as would parts of Libya.4th Century - Christianity, for better or for worse
While Christianity began taking hold in Rome, Egypt for the most part would be unscathed (there was a small church in Alexandria, but was for the most part left ignored by local Egyptians). It was not until the Egyptian conquest of Judea that they would come in prolonged contact with the new religion. At first there was strong resistance to giving Christians any sort of leeway or acceptance. However, after considering how Rome's cultural infrastructure was collapsing around it, the Pharaoh made the decision to accept these newcomers into Egyptian lands and allow them to keep their beliefs, citing the need for a harmonious society. This same agreement was also made with the Jews in the area. Eventually, over the next few centuries, the Jews and Christians of Egypt would prove to be just as loyal and supportive of the Pharaoh and the Egyptian Nation as any of the Pagan Egyptians. Even more important to point out is the fact that as a result of this policy of acceptance, the Pagan religion would actually grow stronger as a result.Early 5th Century - The Egyptian Brand of Christianity
The harmony of many beliefs in Egypt would eventually led to the official acceptance Coptic Christianity in Egypt. The Pharaoh himself while refusing to convert, would in fact allow a small Coptic Church to be built in the general vicinity of the Karnak temple complex, which had been restored from moderate ruin only two hundred years before. There was however a high level of protest from the Pagan priests, but they could do little.---Further Updates to follow---
With time, the Church at Karnak would grow to be the center of Coptic Orthodox Christianity.