after a long pause I am pleased to welcome you to the second chapter of:
The Apulian Persons Project
Alias "Trilogia Apuliae"
This project was intended to develop 3 AARs playing respectively EU2, Victoria and CK with countries stretching around Apulia - my homeland. You might want to read back the first section of the project simply clicking the link on my sig. That was a 1492-1820 chronicle of the fictional Duchy (then Kingdom) of Apulia. Now I'm going to play Kingdom of Two Sicilies during a VIP 0.45 (normal/normal) Grand Campaign. Hope you'll enjoy... and let's move on! (Please, be only patient with my slow-progressing playing and writing style, I hope to posts at least 1-2 updates per week, depending on RL events).
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AAR progressed to:
Two Sicilies, 1836
Italy and colonies, 1870
Italy and colonies, 1887 (satellites: blue, colonial buildings: red squares)
Italy and colonies, 1897 (satellites: blue, colonial buildings: red squares)
Italy and colonies, 1908 (satellites: blue, colonial buildings: red squares)
Italy and colonies, 1920 (satellites: blue, colonial buildings: red squares)
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Forms of Government and Heads of State
1836 ******************************************* 1920
Kingdom of Two Sicilies: Ferdinand II (1830-48)
Republic of Two Sicilies: Vacant (1848-52)
Federal Republic of Italy: Septemvirate/provisional (1852), Giuseppe Mazzini (1853-62), Carlo Poerio (1862-67 [Dies]), Gabrio Casati (1867-1871), Aurelio Saffi (1872-1881), Agostino Depretis (1881-86 [Killed]), Luigi Pianciani (1886-95 [first President moving from Naples to Rome]), Giuseppe Saracco (1895-1905), Ernesto Nathan (1905-14), Giovanni Giolitti (1914-20).
Ruling parties and Prime Ministers
1836 ******************************************* 1920
Ristorazionista (Reactionary): Vacant (1830-39), Giuseppe Pisanelli (1839-47)
Reformisti (Liberal): Nicola Maresca (1847-48), Carlo Troya (1848-52)
Sinistra Costituzionale (Liberal/progressive): Carlo Troya (1853-57)
Destra Consorterista (Liberal/moderate): Camillo Benso (1857-61 [Dies]), Marco Minghetti (1861-62)
Sinistra Costituzionale (Liberal/progressive): Urbano Rattazzi (1862-63), Agostino Depretis (1863-67), Urbano Rattazzi (1867-71), Agostino Depretis (1872-78), Benedetto Cairoli (1878), Benedetto Cairoli-Bis (1879-81), Francesco Crispi (1881-85), Giuseppe Zanardelli (1885-86).
Partito Radicale (Liberal/radical): Felice Cavallotti (1886-95).
Sinistra Costituzionale (Liberal/progressive): Giovanni Giolitti (1895-96), Giuseppe Zanardelli (1896-1900).
Partito Radicale (Liberal/radical): Ernesto Nathan (1900-1905), Francesco Saverio Nitti (1905-1920).
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Short (links not exhaustive of all the posts, I mean) chronology of events
1836: Crown heir Francis is born in Naples to King Ferdinand II.
1838: Composer Gaetano Donizetti leaves the San Carlo Opera House with a "cash hole".
Early 1840s: Public works and development measures sustains a broad industrial take-off. First railways inaugurated in 1846.
1846: Luigi Settembrini publishes a pamphlet against Ferdinand II's cabinet reactionary attitudes (August). Suppressed revolts in Reggio and Messina (September).
1847: Palermo revolts on 22th June; urged by public demonstrations, Ferdinand II grants a Constitution and appoints a new Liberal government; war against Austria declared on 29th June. It will last almost 5 years ...
1848: Constitutional crisis and proclamation of the Republic (March), Ferdinand is taken into custody. The Austrians bloodly halt at Postoja the Neapolitan fast advance in enemy territory (May).
1851-52: After the retreat from Austrian territories and the ensuing glorious defence of Bergamo (October 1851), peace negotiations finally result in the Armistice of Trento (27th February 1852). War is over, Italian victory! On 21st June 1852, the Plebiscite sanctions the birth of the Federal Republic of Italy. The first Parliament assembles in Naples on 30th December 1852.
1853-55: The "Useless War" provoked by Austria ends without territorial gains (Treaty of Zurich).
1856: In September Camillo Benso (Finance Minister) launches a massive program for infrastructure development. By 1860, an Italian can travel by train from Turin to Palermo.
1857: The "connubio" Benso-Crispi allows the Destra Consorterista to overcome Carlo Troya's Left as ruling party. Benso inaugurates his four-years-long brilliant cabinet. In foreign policy, alliance deals with Greece (July 1857) and France (Pact of Plombières, December 1859) are closed.
1861: Camillo Benso dies of stress-related illness after an intense period of infrastructural and industrial development. Marco Minghetti inaugurates his single-year cabinet.
1862: The leftist Sinistra Costituzionale wins 1862 elections but its leading figures Rattazzi and Depretis form unstable cabinets.
1866: Easy conquest of Tunisia (January-May). In April the Third Independence War (Italy, France and Prussia against Austria, Bavaria and other German minors - initially) begins with sound Italian victories before that a stalemate occurs in Autumn.
1867: After the sound advance in Dalmatia and the glorious naval victory at Lissa, Depretis receives a strong endorsement by electors.
1870: Smashed during the 1869 summer offensive, the Austro-Hungarians finally accept the conditions fixed in the Armistice of Praha (cessation of South Tyrol, Istria and Zadar).
1876-79: Intense demographic growth and unemployment provoke farmers riots in Central-Southern Italy and political instability; a massive emigration from rural areas into cities and towards the Americas begins in these years, but also public spending increases to sustain growth and employment.
1880: Contrasts with France in North Africa put an end to the old Paris-Naples friendship and cause an Anglo-Italian alignment.
1882-85: Golden age of Italian colonialism with settlements in the Horn of Africa and Sahara region. The Egyptian campaign (June 1882-January 1883) ends with the establishment of an Italian protectorate over the Khedive's lands. The acquisitions of eastern Arabia and Massaua follow in 1884-85.
1886: Cavallotti's Partito Radicale wins elections and forms a government with progressive liberals. In August President Depretis is assassinated by anarchic Cirillo in Viterbo.
1887: Rome is annexed and becomes the capital of the Republic of Italy.
1888: Zanardelli's act on non-profit organisations liberalises every kind of workers' trade unions.
1889: The Treaty of Wichale establishes an Italian protectorate over Menelik II's Abyssinian Empire. Big naval developments under Minister Benedetto Brin.
Early 1890s: Cavallotti's second term promotes a full extension of political rights and a national programme for public works and industrial growth under the brilliant tenure of Finance Minister Giovanni Giolitti.
1895: Giolitti's first liberal/radical cabinet has immediately to face a conflict with Abyssinia.
1896: The Massaua black funds scandal provokes the fall of Giolitti and early elections. PM Zanardelli signs with Menelik II the Treaty of Addis Ababa, which brings significant territorial additions for Italy.
1897-98: Conquest of Northern Arabian peninsula from Ha'il and new alliance pact with France. Italy joins Russia, Serbia and Greece in the victorious Balkan War against Austria-Hungary.
1899: With Russian and Serbian consent, Italy annexes Georgia and Montenegro. Further territorial additions come from the brief conflict with Greece and Crete.
1900: Ernesto Nathan's radicals come back into power in a period of social reconciliation and cultural and economic development.
Early 1900s: Italy subjugates Abyssinia and Ha'il. Colonial expansion reaches also Hoggar (1901) and Somaliland (1906).
1905: PM Nitti launches an important military reinforcement program. Italian military expenditions in Atjeh (1908) and Brunei (1909).
1909: Italy enters the battleship era, participating in the naval race. Nitti's domestic policies focus on modernisation and socioeconomic reforms.
1911: Russia declares war upon Italy for Georgia on 24th June. The ensuing half year records some initial Italian successes, mostly naval.
1912-14: Greece joins the Russian side but is easily conquered and made an Italian satellite when General Armani enters Athens (19th January 1913). In the meantime, operations against Russia drag out without significant improvements for months, spent in costly trench warfare.
1915: After the Agreement of Bellinzona, which resolves a Franco-German crisis, France intervenes in favour of Italy against Russia (August). The Treaty of Stockholm (November) sanctions the return to status quo.
1916: A final settlement with France gives the city of Tunis to Italy.
1918-19: Great War (Ottoman Empire, Prussia and Italy vs. Russia, Austria-Hungary and Serbia) brings devastation to Europe, and Russia in particular; no territorial gains for Italy.
1920: In a more and more complex domestic and international scenario, Mussolini's Fasci di Combattimento gather consensus among reactionaries willing to obstacle, also anti-democratically, the progressive policies of Nitti's Partito Radicale.