Antoine-Henri Jomini was a citizen of Switzerland who served as a commissioned officer in both the French and Russian armies. He was one of the most admired and celebrated writers on the arts of Napoleonic warfare. He published his ‘Traité des grandes operations militaires’ in 1805. His later services included acting as military advisor to the Russian Tsar during the Crimean War and furnishing a plan of campaign for Napoleon III in 1859 for the Italian War.
The Austrian Defence Programme
Austrian military chiefs had in recent months petitioned the government for a definitive defence programme. This included scientific research into and the production of modern arms, reform and expansion of Austria’s standing army and the building of defensive structures in its sensitive border areas. The construction of the first of the new Austrian forts was begun in January 1839 in the mountainous province of Trento in the Tyrol. Though not positioned on the Austro-Sardinian border, it was strategically planned to close the road for Italian progression into the German heart of Austria rather than to be built in what may one day become an island of Italian radicalism in Lombardy-Venetia. Metternich approved military chiefs plans to reform the army in accordance with the philosophies of the respected military advisor Antoine-Henri Jomini.
The Ottoman vassal, Wallachia, entered into a full military alliance with its overlord in May 1840. Wallachia also has a defence pact with Russia. This move though read as a defensive measure by the Porte was none the less met with some alarm at the Austrian Foreign Ministry. Initial fears that nationalist feelings may be stirred up within the Austro-Romanian populace proved unfounded. Of the remaining Ottoman vassal states in the Balkans: Moldavia had no alliances or defensive pacts in place whilst both Serbia and Montenegro had their independence guaranteed by the Russian Tsar, Nicholas.
General Baldomero Espartero, President of Spain in 1840-1843. Though initially a supporter of the young Isabella II and even becoming regent during her mother’s exile to France, he went on to become a virtual dictator. Increasingly authoritarian, militaristic and ruthless in his suppression of rebellion he became unpopular with the very people who had promoted him to power. He was forcibly removed from power in 1843 by a military uprising lead by General Ramon y Campos with moderatos support who declared Isabella II of age to rule.
Carlists in the Basque country, Aragon and Catalonia celebrated Carlos Isidro’s crowning as King of Navarra. Spain reacts with outrage and the Carlist war is resumed. Don Carlos was again defeated by Spain’s liberal government forces of the Queen Regent. The Queen Regent herself would not remain in power for much longer. Liberal reformists had constantly pressed for a new constitution that would give greater power to the Cortes, the Spanish parliament. Due to her reliance on liberal support for the Carlist Wars, Maria Cristina was forced to give concessions. The progressista hero, General Espartero was named President of the government in Madrid. When Espartero embarked on a programme of reform, Maria Crisitina resigned her regency. Spain was united under the rule of Isabella II in May 1840, the last embers of the Carlist cause were extinguished.
War in Egypt
Left: Muhammed Ali and Right:Sultan Mahmud II
It was in 1798 that Napoleon ordered the invasion of Egypt in order to disrupt Britain’s line of communications with India. The British Royal Navy destroyed the French fleet at the battle of the Nile but France’s land army continued in its occupation until 1801. Egypt came under the dominion of the Ottoman Empire whose troops, as allies of Britain, had dislodged the French. Muhammed Ali established a power base in the liberated Egyptian lands and was recognised as Viceroy by the Sublime Porte of the Ottomans. In the latter months of 1838 Muhammed Ali declared his intention to break with the Ottoman Turks and to create an independent dynasty in Egypt and Syria. The Ottoman Sultan, Mahmud II, appealed to Austria and the other great powers of Europe for support against Muhammed Ali. In April of 1839 the Sultan declared war.
European Intervention in the Second Oriental Crisis
The event description: With the Ottomans rapidly advancing through Syria and Palestine, the Great Powers decided to intervene as it was none of their interests for either side to achieve a complete victory.
Between March and April 1840 a settlement to the Ottoman-Egyptian war was sought by the Great Powers led by the UK. Russia and Prussia agree with the UK as does Austria. With the Ottomans advancing on Egypt, Metternich would agree to support any treaty that held back the Turks from increasing their power base. Only François Guizot, the new Foreign Minister of France refused to support an armistice. Egypt was a sore to their historic pride, ‘Let the Ottomans crush Egypt’ he declared. Muhammed Ali agreed to a ceasefire. In July, after Muhammed Ali had continued to hold out for better terms, Britain, Austria and Prussia lost patience in negotiations and decided to force a settlement. Russia remained neutral when it came to threat of force. On August 5, Palmerston, British Foreign Minister, communicated the final offer to Egypt. Ali refuses and war between Egypt and the Ottoman Empire resumes. France refused Muhammed Ali’s call for military support. Great Britain carries out its threat to force a peace settlement and declares war on Egypt. Muhammed Ali now agrees to peace for less than he wished. Egypt becomes an independent nation, freed of the Ottoman yolk but the new Sultan, Abdulmecid, holds onto Syria.
Frederick William IV, King of Prussia, reigned 1840-1861. Though conservative, he was less of a reactionary than his father and was dedicated to the unification of Germany.
In June of 1840, Emperor Ferdinand and Chancellor Metternich attended the state funeral of the late King of Prussia, Frederick William III. His 44 year old son was crowned Frederick William IV in the same month. Though Metternich was fully aware of the new king’s fervent desire for a unified Germany under Prussian hegemony and Frederick William was no doubt aware of the ever strengthening relations between Austria with Bavaria and Russia, continuance of the Austro-Prussian alliance was never in doubt by the succession. What ever the internal competition and intriguing between the Austrian and Prussian courts a united strength had to be outwardly shown to the great powers of Europe.
In the aftermath of the war in the near east, France turns its back on Egypt altogether and enters into an alliance with the Ottoman Empire. The other current alliances of France are defence pacts with Lucca and the Two Sicilies.
Russia and Britain
In the east, Russia renews its attempt to gain influence in the Khanates. In January 1840, following Perovsky's failed expedition of two years previous, Russia declares war on Khiva and by the end of October, Khiva is annexed into the greater Russian State much to the dismay of the British government. Britain’s attention though is focused firmly on China and the First Opium War.
In 1840, ‘The Rhine Crisis’ event fired for all German Federation States except for Austria but I have no idea what the Rhine Crisis actually is/was? So I haven’t attempted to write it into the story line.
My capitalists have started spending their hard earned cash. Level one railroads are starting to appear and two factories, winery and furniture are under construction but with a residence party and only 20% of my pops being of accepted national culture I’ll be hard pushed to find employees. I can’t split existing craftsmen and clerks pops yet as they are all under the 40k threshold.
I have still not enough spare cash lying around in 1840 to promote a couple of capitalists in states that don’t have any yet.
Continued to spend my diplomats on improving relations with Russia and Bavaria.