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Thread: The House of Habsburg

  1. #1
    Village Idiot Garuda's Avatar
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    The House of Habsburg

    The House of Habsburg






    The Austrian Empire 1804

    The Austrian Empire was founded in 1804 by Franz I on a remnant of the Holy Roman Empire. It was a direct response to Napoleon Bonaparte’s proclamation of the First French Empire in that same year. Franz I Emperor (1804-1835), Napoleon I’s father-in-law, was formerly Holy Roman Emperor as Francis II. Austria, as part of the third coalition, was defeated by the French at Austerlitz in 1805 and Austrian foreign policy in the ensuing years was centred around its fear and distrust of France.

    Congress of Vienna 1815

    After Napoleon’s eventual defeat at waterloo, the Congress of Vienna reset the borders of Europe. The meeting of Europe’s major powers, including France under a restored Bourbon monarchy, was chaired by the Chancellor of Austria, Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, who went on to become Europe’s premier statesman. Austria benefited from several points of the Congress of Vienna. Austria became a member state of the newly formed German Confederation and Franz I was given its presidency. Switzerland had its neutrality confirmed by all of the Great Powers which protected part of Austria’s national border. Austria regained the Tirol and was ceded the Lombardy-Venetia and Dalmatia. Habsburg princes were returned to control over the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Modena too. The rule of the Duchy of Parma was given to another Habsburg, the one time Empress of the French, Duchess Marie Louise, daughter of Franz I of Austria, second wife of Napoleon Bonaparte and mother of Napoleon II, King of Rome. Other effects of the Congress included: Restoration of the Papal States under the Pope. Restoration of the King of Sardinia in Piedmont, Savoy and Nice. Russia gained most of the Duchy of Warsaw, Prussia gained from the rest along with receiving parts of Saxony and Swedish Pomerania.

    The State

    Austria was not a country, it was an organisation. Its population was not Austrian but German, Magyar, Czech, Italian, Pole and Slav. Austria was a member state of the German Confederation and its Habsburg rulers dreamt of uniting a German nation under its own hegemony. Austria’s administration was centralised and the aristocracy gravitated around the German speaking Austrian court. The Emperor ruled from his seat in Vienna and at a local level, each state had its own diet (assembly). The diets had no real power. They had no power to create laws, nor to reject or object to new laws. Primarily they existed to exert local control over the masses by the aristocracy and for tax collection. The largest of the diets was the Hungarian diet that met at Bratislava. During the nineteenth century many peoples were drawn away from rural areas to the towns as agrarianism gave way to industrialism. The towns were very Germanic in flavour and the German language predominated in urban areas, in businesses, in education and industry. Austrian identity was born out of progression as more and more people thought of themselves as Austrian-Germans.

    The Emperor


    Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia.


    Ferdinand was forty two years of age when he succeeded his father as Emperor in 1835 and ruled until he abdicated in 1848, the year of revolutions. He was epileptic, rickety and weak minded. An unofficial regent council of Metternich with Habsburg nobles steered the Empire throughout Ferdinand’s reign. He died in 1875.

    **********


    Austria VIPR01 normal/normal
    Slight moderations to reduce production efficiencies of some commodities, principally coal, iron, timber, grain, fruit, fish, wool, precious metals. And slight reduction in running costs for social reforms.

    I hope this works out. I am not a very good Vicky player and I’ve never played Austria at all. I have no idea what’s in store for me. Maybe I should have played a test game? But I’m too impetuous to play a test game. It would be like installing a new game and actually reading the manual before begining to play, I mean who on earth does that?

    I have read many excellent AARs on these forums by talented writers and knowledgeable forumites. So here is my offering but believe me I’m no expert in history and not a talented writer; so please don't expect historical accuracy. This is actually my second AAR. The first was a CK offering that ended abruptly due to a bit of a bug. It would be very nice to actually have the encouragement of a few readers and I’m willing to beg if necessary to get some. That being said, expect updates to be somewhat slow.
    Last edited by Garuda; 17-08-2007 at 17:52.
    'Gentlemen, we're in the stickiest situation since Sticky the stick-insect got stuck on a sticky bun' - Capt. E. Blackadder.

    He who binds to himself a joy, Does the winged life destroy;
    But he who kisses the joy as it flies, Lives in eternity's sun rise. - William Blake


    The Empire needs YOU.. Come and post something nice about my AAR. The House of Habsburg. Victoria Revolutions VIPR01. Winner of the WritAAR of the Week Award 13 January 2008.

  2. #2
    Village Idiot Garuda's Avatar
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    1836



    Monarch: Emperor Ferdinand I
    Chancellor: Klemens von Metternich
    Catholic Nation
    Population: 35.2 millions (1 January 1836)
    National culture: South German

    Executive design: Laws by decree. Party system: Two Party. National value: order. Plurality: 0. Voting rights: none. Public meetings: legal. Press: State. Parties: right to ban. Unions: none. No social reforms.


    Austrian Empire 1836



    The States of The German Confederation

    Austria in 1836 was part of the alliance of the German Confederation States comprising The Empire of Austria, the Kingdoms of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Hannover and Württemburg as well as various German Duchies, Principalities and City States. Outwardly, the Confederation alliance was strong. Inwardly, the strongest states, namely Austria and Prussia ruled by Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg and Frederick William III of the House of Hohenzollern respectively, both dreamt of hegemony over each other and a unified German nation.

    The Peoples of The Empire

    Austria’s population by the end of 1836 reached 35.6 millions (674 pops). The cosmopolitan mix of cultures within the empire is ripe for implosion. Seven million Austrian-Germans concentrated in the central provinces. Five million Italians in Tirol, Lombardy and Venetia. Two and a half million Poles living in Galicia, the border state of Austria with Russia. Three and a half million Czechs in Bohemia. Almost three million Romanians in the Balkans along with many Serbs and Croats. Most of the population were rural farmers and labourers, practising Catholics and orthodox Christians.

    Austrian Policies

    Austria faces a tough time in holding together its cosmopolitan empire. The Balkan states are divided between Austrian rule in Dalmatia, Croatia and Slovenia with the vassal nations of the Ottoman Empire, namely: Moldavia, Wallachia, Serbia and Montenegro. Though Austrian foreign policy was dominated by France and Sardinia-Piedmont, Austria always had to look over its shoulder at its old Islamic enemy that guarded the doorway to the middle-east. Twice in history had Ottoman armies besieged Vienna and ruled over large parts of what is today Austrian Imperial land. To secure its borders, Austria would seek to support independence of Balkan buffer states.

    In the Italian states, Austria controlled the Duchies of Tuscany, Modena and Parma as satellites and was allied with King Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies. The Two Sicilies sought to continuously improve relations at the Austrian court during 1836 and beyond. Their ambassador was always graciously accepted though behind closed doors Metternich’s unadmitted policy was to sow disparagement amongst the Italian states rather than to show support for a united Italy under Sicilian hegemony. With five million Italians living within Austrian borders, a strong and united Italy would not be acceptable to Austria as it would be a direct threat to Habsburg control of its own Italian possessions. The greatest threat to Sicilian supremacy in Italy was not Austrian but Sardinian. King Charles Albert of Sardinia-Piedmont and Savoy also dreamt of hegemony in a united Italy and with French support, the Sardinian threat was a plausible one. Charles Albert was a direct threat to Austrian security and influence in the northern Italian states. A pre-emptive strike against Sardinia-Piedmont was under serious consideration but Charles Albert was protected by a defence pact with Russia, Prussia, France and Britain who all guaranteed Sardinia’s independence. For now, the Italian problem would have to remain outstanding.

    Political Parties

    No parties existed in Austria in 1836. The nation was subject to Imperial rule. The two main starting in-game political parties featured in Ricky are the Metternich Faction and the Kolowrat Faction. These represent Austria’s most prominent statesmen of the time; Klemens Wenzel von Metternich-Winneburge zu Beilstein and Count Franz Anton von Kolowrat-Liebsteinsky.


    Prinz Klemens Wenzel von Metternich


    Chancellor of Austria 1809-1848. Metternich was born in Coblenz in 1773 to an ambassador of Trier, Count Franz George Karl von Metternich-Winneburge zu Beilstein. He held offices in Westphalia before becoming an Austrian diplomat to Saxony, Berlin and Paris. He was party to some of the most important political meetings of the early nineteenth century, including The Treaty Of Paris, The Congress of Vienna and The 1833 Berlin Convention. Ferdinand I proved to be an imbecile and so upon his ascension to the Habsburg throne in 1835, an unofficial regency council was formed through which Metternich hoped to rule Austria. Though several Habsburg nobles were part of the council Metternich hoped to guide Austria largely unopposed, but Archduke Johann, a cousin of Ferdinand’s, had more strength of character and influence over the Habsburgs than Metternich had bargained for and Metternich never gained the free hand he had hoped for.



    Franz Anton Graf von Kolowrat-Liebsteinsky


    Kolowrat was born in Prague in 1778 to a family of the Czech nobility. He served as an Austrian statesman from 1826-1848. He was a moderate liberal and financial expert, largely responsible for home affairs and the economy during his years of service. He was Metternich’s arch nemesis at the Austrian court. The two men hated each other. Kolowrat became Austria’s first Minister-President (Prime Minister) in 1848 after Metternich’s resignation.


    The Treaty of London

    On 17 January 1836 Metternich attended a conference in London to discuss the peace settlement to end the Dutch-Belgian civil war. Belgium had been absorbed into the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815 and had now risen up in open revolt to win independence again. Viscount Melbourne, Prime Minister of Great Britain chaired the conference along with his Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Viscount Palmerston. They sought to assert upon the Netherlands recognition of Belgian independence. Belgium was also to be given right of transit by rail or canal over Dutch territory as an outway to the Ruhr. Melbourne also wished for the great powers in attendance to recognise Belgium as a neutral state. Adolphe Thiers, Foreign Minister for France was in agreement with Melbourne. Great Britain and France signed the Treaty of London along with Belgium and the Netherlands to conclude the peace settlement. Through this Belgium gained a defence pact as her independence was guaranteed by Britian and France. Freidrich Ancillon, Foreign Minister for Prussia refused to endorse the peace agreement, Prussia’s interest lay in the support of a greater Netherlands under Germanic influence and so Ancillon left the conference without signing the treaty. Metternich had already decided that he would show German unity, a strong Germanic central Europe based on conservative ideals was more important to Austria than the guarantee of a free sovereign nation in Belgium that was already being opened to manipulation by British liberals. Metternich therefore, declined to sign the treaty.

    War in Spain

    Early in 1836, the figurehead of the Carlists and pretender to the throne of Spain, Carlos Maria Isidro appealed to the Imperial Court in Vienna for direct intervention and support for the Carlist cause in the civil war now raging in Spain. The war was a war of succession. Spanish law had excluded the female line from inheriting the throne since the time of Phillip V. In 1830, King Ferdinand VII, who had no sons, changed the law of succession so that his daughter would inherit at the expense of Carlos, his reactionary and authoritarian brother. Ferdinand died in 1833 and his infant daughter, Isabella, just three years old became Queen of Spain. Isabella’s mother Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies became Queen Regent. The Infante Carlos disputed the legitimacy of Maria Christina's regency and the accession of her daughter, and declared himself to be the rightful heir to the Spanish throne. The Carlist Wars ensued. Political lines were drawn, the conservatives aligned themselves in support of Carlos, whilst the liberals formed an alliance of convenience with the progresista faction at the royal court.


    Maria Cristina, Queen Regent of Spain and the pretender Carlos Maria Isidro.


    Though the Carlists drew on conservative support, Austria declined to show any support for Carlos. Spain’s Queen Regent, Maria Cristina, had the full support of Austria’s ally, King Ferdinand II of the Two-Sicilies. The Metternich faction at the court of Austria, themselves representing a royal house had no intention of supporting a usurper. The Carlists were defeated just eight months later.


    World Affairs

    Tensions begin to show in relationships between Russia and Britain over Persia. Persia accepted Russian protection. Russia expanded its sphere of influence in the middle east at Britain’s expense who were expelled by Mohammed Shah. In return Persia was provided with Russian arms to strengthen its military. Afghanistan under Dost Mohammed reaffirmed ties with Britain and remained firmly under the UK’s influence. In August Russia declared against the state of Georgia. Georgia had no allies and not enough geographic or demographic importance to gather support for its independence from the great powers. Toward the end of 1836, both France and the Ottomans became embroiled in conflicts in North Africa. The Turks annexed Fezzan whilst France launched ineffective raids into Constantine.
    Last edited by Garuda; 03-01-2008 at 14:53.
    'Gentlemen, we're in the stickiest situation since Sticky the stick-insect got stuck on a sticky bun' - Capt. E. Blackadder.

    He who binds to himself a joy, Does the winged life destroy;
    But he who kisses the joy as it flies, Lives in eternity's sun rise. - William Blake


    The Empire needs YOU.. Come and post something nice about my AAR. The House of Habsburg. Victoria Revolutions VIPR01. Winner of the WritAAR of the Week Award 13 January 2008.

  3. #3
    Sergeant punterke's Avatar
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    good luck holding the empire together

  4. #4
    Village Idiot Garuda's Avatar
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    National Statistics December 1836

    Population: 35.6 millions (674 pops)
    21 states comprising 93 provinces
    National culture: South German 20% (7.1m)
    Non-national cultures: Hungarian: 6.5% (5.9m) ; North Italian: 14% (5.0m);
    Czech: 10% (3.5m) ; Romanian: 8% (2.8m) ; Polish:7% (2.5m) and others.
    Dom Iss: Moralism: 98%; Secondary: Laissez Faire 55%, Lim Citz 26%.
    Factories: 8……Literacy: 25.8%.....MP: 158……LP: 2

    Economy
    Income: £28,731
    Expenses: £20,703

    Highest Budget Expenses:
    Education: £7638…. 37%
    Imports: £3255….15.7%
    Army maintenance: £2971…14.4%
    Defence spending: £2626….£12.7%

    Production:
    Imports: £46 per day
    Exports: £150 per day 9th highest in the world

    Principal export goods:
    Commodity…daily production…price
    Cattle/Horses:…. 8.0…...£2.07……(Austria was famous for its export of horses).
    Coal:…………… 7.6…..£3.65
    Grain:………….. 7.5…..£1.29
    Fruit:……………7.2…..£1.35
    Wool:………….. 7.1…..£1.61
    Iron: ……………4.1…..£4.94


    Military
    Standing Army: 11 divisions….. 9 infantry/2 cavalry….. 90,500 men under arms.
    Force pool: 0
    Reserves: 0
    Fleet: 3 transport ships

    Comparisons:
    Divisions
    Russia=22,…France=14,…Prussia=14,…Ottoman Empire=12,…Egypt=12,…Austria=11, …UK=9,…Sardinia-P=5…………My allies=37 including Austria and Prussia.
    Fleets
    UK=171,…Russia=77,…France=69,…OE=25,…Egypt=10,…Spa in=10,…Prussia=3.
    Last edited by Garuda; 17-08-2007 at 15:56.
    'Gentlemen, we're in the stickiest situation since Sticky the stick-insect got stuck on a sticky bun' - Capt. E. Blackadder.

    He who binds to himself a joy, Does the winged life destroy;
    But he who kisses the joy as it flies, Lives in eternity's sun rise. - William Blake


    The Empire needs YOU.. Come and post something nice about my AAR. The House of Habsburg. Victoria Revolutions VIPR01. Winner of the WritAAR of the Week Award 13 January 2008.

  5. #5
    Village Idiot Garuda's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by punterke
    good luck holding the empire together
    Thanks.
    'Gentlemen, we're in the stickiest situation since Sticky the stick-insect got stuck on a sticky bun' - Capt. E. Blackadder.

    He who binds to himself a joy, Does the winged life destroy;
    But he who kisses the joy as it flies, Lives in eternity's sun rise. - William Blake


    The Empire needs YOU.. Come and post something nice about my AAR. The House of Habsburg. Victoria Revolutions VIPR01. Winner of the WritAAR of the Week Award 13 January 2008.

  6. #6
    Second Lieutenant theycallmetight's Avatar
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    good luck indeed, you'll need it with all those ethnicities you have, hopefully metternich will keep the hapsburgs on top.
    "You can get more with kind word and a gun than you can with just a kind word" -Al Capone

  7. #7
    Victoria's Plastic Surgeon OHgamer's Avatar
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    A very brave choice for a VIP:R AAR.

    Do all you can to get POP MIL dropping as quickly as you can, because starting in 1845 things will get very, very difficult as uprising and wars start coming at you left and right.
    2014 will hopefully allow me to be more active with Paradox games than the last few years

  8. #8
    Major rhynoclemmis's Avatar
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    I'll just have to follow this. I trust when I come back, this thread/AAR will be at least 10 pages long. Great start and interesting way of writing (means I find it interesting to read AND I learn a lot).

    Now get to work, already.

    ;-)
    This turtle's AAR: "Saftladen/Italbolt" - An Austrian GC AAR in Vicky:R, weekly AAR showcase Aug. 30th 2007

  9. #9
    Village Idiot Garuda's Avatar
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    theycallmetight and rhynoclemmis: Thanks for reading.

    OHgamer: I was not expecting an easy ride. The main reason I've never played a game as Austria before is the amount of rebellion it has to deal with. I've reached 1847. Austria is in the grips of the Liberal Revolution and nationalist events have started raising militancy. Not to mention that I'm at war as well, so war exhaustion is rising. I know 1848 was the year of revolutions. I have no idea what this will mean for me in-game yet but I'm about to find out.

    Having such a small proportion of my population as the only accepted national culture hampers me no end too. I have a residence party and am unable to promote any pops other than south german, leaving my factories rather empty.

    I'm not particularly worried about facing a game where I may face partition of my lands or even to crash and burn. It's all about the roleplay for this AAR. I mean, its not like I'm setting out to the rule the world here .....Mwuhahahahaha.
    'Gentlemen, we're in the stickiest situation since Sticky the stick-insect got stuck on a sticky bun' - Capt. E. Blackadder.

    He who binds to himself a joy, Does the winged life destroy;
    But he who kisses the joy as it flies, Lives in eternity's sun rise. - William Blake


    The Empire needs YOU.. Come and post something nice about my AAR. The House of Habsburg. Victoria Revolutions VIPR01. Winner of the WritAAR of the Week Award 13 January 2008.

  10. #10
    Major Michaeru's Avatar
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    Well I hope you can keep the Empire together. Alles Erdreich ist Österreich Untertan! Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser!

  11. #11
    The Fuehrer of the Dance Mettermrck's Avatar
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    I look forward to seeing VIPR 0.1 in action...best of fortune, sir!

  12. #12
    Good luck Garuda! AH AARs are always interesting.

  13. #13
    Village Idiot Garuda's Avatar
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    1837 - 1838


    Nothing exciting in this update I’m afraid.


    King Ludwig I Augustus of Bavaria, reigned from 1825 to 1848. Ludwig was a great patron of the arts. He collected antiquities and had a great interest in neoclassical architecture. He also re-erected many churches and monasteries.



    Foreign Affairs

    During 1837 and 1838 Austrian diplomats did much to encourage better relations with Bavaria and Russia. Bavaria was the third largest of the German States and its king, Ludwig Augustus, would provide invaluable support for the Austrian cause in the event of creating a German National State under Habsburg rule. Ludwig made no secret of his desire to reunite the Palatinate lands with Bavaria, part of these lands, west of the Rhine, were granted to Bavaria by the Congress of 1815. In return for his support Ludwig was promised that his claims to the remainder of the Palatinate, currently under the rule of Baden, would be looked upon favourably if Austria was to unite Germany. The reason for good Russian relations was far more straight forward: namely the security of Austrian-Galicia. Austria, Russia and Prussia were unified in their suppression of the Poles and when stood together they were able to deflect the political intrigues of Britain and France, both of whom favoured the restoration of a Polish state from lands currently administered to by the three 'Northern Courts'.

    Home Affairs

    During August of 1837 the munitions industry in Budapest suffered from a fire that devastated much of the main industrial employment sites. The Imperial government was forced to divert large quantities from its annual budget to rebuild the industry. The disaster had a huge effect on the city’s population. Without government intervention the people of Budapest would face unemployment and poverty that would only provide fuel for the Magyar radicals to sow anti-government feeling. [1]

    With the beginnings of large scale industrialisation in Europe’s major countries, it became noticeable that Austria’s home economy was falling behind in terms of capital investment for industry and infrastructure. Austria’s trade relied heavily upon the free navigation of the Danube whilst elsewhere in Europe, the new railroads were beginning to offer an alternative method of transport for trade goods and a means of expediency for the mobilisation of armed forces. If Austria was to hold its place amongst Europe’s elite and if the House of Habsburg was to pursue its dream of German hegemony, more would be needed to be done to encourage capitalism. [2]

    [I]Random event ‘Industry Disaster’. I spent £10k to save my ammunition factory. Cash for pops in Budapest -£1k and life rating temporarily -5.
    [2] Less than 1% of my population are capitalists (8 pops in total: 3 in Bohemia and 1 in Vienna are Austro-German; 2 in Budapest are Magyar; 1 in Milan and 1 in Venizia are Italian), I have less internal investment than France, UK and Prussia. I need to promote one or two capitalists when I can afford it. I can only promote South Germans as I have a residence policy.



    World Affairs

    Russian poet and novelist dies

    Alexander Pushkin a poet and novelist died in St. Petersburg on 10 February 1837. During his lifetime he had become deeply committed to social reform, emerging as a spokesman for literary radicals. He was effectively barred from the Russian capital for his outspoken views. Later his works were subject to government censorship.



    Left: Emir Abd al-Qadir. Right: French bombardment of Algiers heralds invasion of 1830.


    The Treaty of Tafna

    Following a rupture in diplomatic relations in 1830 between Bourbon France and the Dey of Algiers, France began an invasion of Algeria. Two years after the occupation, Abd al-Qadir the son of a Shayk was made Emir by Algerian tribesmen in Tlemcen. Deeply religious, charismatic and chivalrous he lead rebellious uprisings against the French. On 30 May 1837, following heavy losses by the French military, the Treaty of Tafna was signed by al-Qadir and Marshal Thomas Bugeuad. The terms entailed Abd al-Qadir to recognise French sovereignty in Oran and Algiers, in return France promised the secession of the remaining occupied Algerian provinces to al-Qadir.

    A new King of Hanover

    Ernst August, the son of England’s George III, ascended to the throne of Hanover on 28 June 1837 to become King Ernst August I. One of his first acts was to change the constitution. In carrying the new King’s patent into effect, the Hanovarian Cabinet required all office holders to renew their oaths of allegiance to the King, this included university professors. Seven professors at Göttingen University refused to do so and stirred for others to refuse too. They were each expelled from the Kingdom. As a result consciousness and militancy is raised for peoples throughout all member states of the German Federation.

    Russian and British influence in Central Asia

    In 1837 Russia had politically trumped Britain in Persia. In 1838, Russia seeking to extend it’s influence within the Khanates of central Asia, mounted an expedition to Khiva lead by General Vasily Perovsky. Ostensibly to free captured slaves taken from the Russian frontiers and sold by Turkmen raiders, Tsar Nicholas and his foreign minister, Nesselrode, had a deeper agenda. Russian policy in central Asia was driven by its cat and mouse game with Britain over the security of respective national interests. Both great powers sought the control of buffer states. Russia to protect its extensive southern borders and Britain to protect its holdings in India. By its mission to Khiva, Russia looked to extend its borders while the British were distracted by escalating tensions in Afghanistan. Russia’s mission was ill-equipped and poorly managed, Perovsky returned to Odessa in failure.


    .
    Last edited by Garuda; 22-08-2007 at 18:19.
    'Gentlemen, we're in the stickiest situation since Sticky the stick-insect got stuck on a sticky bun' - Capt. E. Blackadder.

    He who binds to himself a joy, Does the winged life destroy;
    But he who kisses the joy as it flies, Lives in eternity's sun rise. - William Blake


    The Empire needs YOU.. Come and post something nice about my AAR. The House of Habsburg. Victoria Revolutions VIPR01. Winner of the WritAAR of the Week Award 13 January 2008.

  14. #14
    Village Idiot Garuda's Avatar
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    Michaeru, Mettermrck and Freddan: Thankyou all for reading and for your encouragements.
    'Gentlemen, we're in the stickiest situation since Sticky the stick-insect got stuck on a sticky bun' - Capt. E. Blackadder.

    He who binds to himself a joy, Does the winged life destroy;
    But he who kisses the joy as it flies, Lives in eternity's sun rise. - William Blake


    The Empire needs YOU.. Come and post something nice about my AAR. The House of Habsburg. Victoria Revolutions VIPR01. Winner of the WritAAR of the Week Award 13 January 2008.

  15. #15
    Village Idiot Garuda's Avatar
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    1839 -1840





    Antoine-Henri Jomini was a citizen of Switzerland who served as a commissioned officer in both the French and Russian armies. He was one of the most admired and celebrated writers on the arts of Napoleonic warfare. He published his ‘Traité des grandes operations militaires’ in 1805. His later services included acting as military advisor to the Russian Tsar during the Crimean War and furnishing a plan of campaign for Napoleon III in 1859 for the Italian War.


    The Austrian Defence Programme

    Austrian military chiefs had in recent months petitioned the government for a definitive defence programme. This included scientific research into and the production of modern arms, reform and expansion of Austria’s standing army and the building of defensive structures in its sensitive border areas. The construction of the first of the new Austrian forts was begun in January 1839 in the mountainous province of Trento in the Tyrol. Though not positioned on the Austro-Sardinian border, it was strategically planned to close the road for Italian progression into the German heart of Austria rather than to be built in what may one day become an island of Italian radicalism in Lombardy-Venetia. Metternich approved military chiefs plans to reform the army in accordance with the philosophies of the respected military advisor Antoine-Henri Jomini.


    Foreign Affairs

    Balkans

    The Ottoman vassal, Wallachia, entered into a full military alliance with its overlord in May 1840. Wallachia also has a defence pact with Russia. This move though read as a defensive measure by the Porte was none the less met with some alarm at the Austrian Foreign Ministry. Initial fears that nationalist feelings may be stirred up within the Austro-Romanian populace proved unfounded. Of the remaining Ottoman vassal states in the Balkans: Moldavia had no alliances or defensive pacts in place whilst both Serbia and Montenegro had their independence guaranteed by the Russian Tsar, Nicholas.

    World Affairs


    General Baldomero Espartero, President of Spain in 1840-1843. Though initially a supporter of the young Isabella II and even becoming regent during her mother’s exile to France, he went on to become a virtual dictator. Increasingly authoritarian, militaristic and ruthless in his suppression of rebellion he became unpopular with the very people who had promoted him to power. He was forcibly removed from power in 1843 by a military uprising lead by General Ramon y Campos with moderatos support who declared Isabella II of age to rule.


    Carlists in the Basque country, Aragon and Catalonia celebrated Carlos Isidro’s crowning as King of Navarra. Spain reacts with outrage and the Carlist war is resumed. Don Carlos was again defeated by Spain’s liberal government forces of the Queen Regent. The Queen Regent herself would not remain in power for much longer. Liberal reformists had constantly pressed for a new constitution that would give greater power to the Cortes, the Spanish parliament. Due to her reliance on liberal support for the Carlist Wars, Maria Cristina was forced to give concessions. The progressista hero, General Espartero was named President of the government in Madrid. When Espartero embarked on a programme of reform, Maria Crisitina resigned her regency. Spain was united under the rule of Isabella II in May 1840, the last embers of the Carlist cause were extinguished.


    War in Egypt


    Left: Muhammed Ali and Right:Sultan Mahmud II


    It was in 1798 that Napoleon ordered the invasion of Egypt in order to disrupt Britain’s line of communications with India. The British Royal Navy destroyed the French fleet at the battle of the Nile but France’s land army continued in its occupation until 1801. Egypt came under the dominion of the Ottoman Empire whose troops, as allies of Britain, had dislodged the French. Muhammed Ali established a power base in the liberated Egyptian lands and was recognised as Viceroy by the Sublime Porte of the Ottomans. In the latter months of 1838 Muhammed Ali declared his intention to break with the Ottoman Turks and to create an independent dynasty in Egypt and Syria. The Ottoman Sultan, Mahmud II, appealed to Austria and the other great powers of Europe for support against Muhammed Ali. In April of 1839 the Sultan declared war.

    European Intervention in the Second Oriental Crisis

    The event description: With the Ottomans rapidly advancing through Syria and Palestine, the Great Powers decided to intervene as it was none of their interests for either side to achieve a complete victory.

    Between March and April 1840 a settlement to the Ottoman-Egyptian war was sought by the Great Powers led by the UK. Russia and Prussia agree with the UK as does Austria. With the Ottomans advancing on Egypt, Metternich would agree to support any treaty that held back the Turks from increasing their power base. Only François Guizot, the new Foreign Minister of France refused to support an armistice. Egypt was a sore to their historic pride, ‘Let the Ottomans crush Egypt’ he declared. Muhammed Ali agreed to a ceasefire. In July, after Muhammed Ali had continued to hold out for better terms, Britain, Austria and Prussia lost patience in negotiations and decided to force a settlement. Russia remained neutral when it came to threat of force. On August 5, Palmerston, British Foreign Minister, communicated the final offer to Egypt. Ali refuses and war between Egypt and the Ottoman Empire resumes. France refused Muhammed Ali’s call for military support. Great Britain carries out its threat to force a peace settlement and declares war on Egypt. Muhammed Ali now agrees to peace for less than he wished. Egypt becomes an independent nation, freed of the Ottoman yolk but the new Sultan, Abdulmecid, holds onto Syria.


    Prussia


    Frederick William IV, King of Prussia, reigned 1840-1861. Though conservative, he was less of a reactionary than his father and was dedicated to the unification of Germany.


    In June of 1840, Emperor Ferdinand and Chancellor Metternich attended the state funeral of the late King of Prussia, Frederick William III. His 44 year old son was crowned Frederick William IV in the same month. Though Metternich was fully aware of the new king’s fervent desire for a unified Germany under Prussian hegemony and Frederick William was no doubt aware of the ever strengthening relations between Austria with Bavaria and Russia, continuance of the Austro-Prussian alliance was never in doubt by the succession. What ever the internal competition and intriguing between the Austrian and Prussian courts a united strength had to be outwardly shown to the great powers of Europe.

    France

    In the aftermath of the war in the near east, France turns its back on Egypt altogether and enters into an alliance with the Ottoman Empire. The other current alliances of France are defence pacts with Lucca and the Two Sicilies.

    Russia and Britain

    In the east, Russia renews its attempt to gain influence in the Khanates. In January 1840, following Perovsky's failed expedition of two years previous, Russia declares war on Khiva and by the end of October, Khiva is annexed into the greater Russian State much to the dismay of the British government. Britain’s attention though is focused firmly on China and the First Opium War.

    ******
    Game Notes:

    In 1840, ‘The Rhine Crisis’ event fired for all German Federation States except for Austria but I have no idea what the Rhine Crisis actually is/was? So I haven’t attempted to write it into the story line.

    My capitalists have started spending their hard earned cash. Level one railroads are starting to appear and two factories, winery and furniture are under construction but with a residence party and only 20% of my pops being of accepted national culture I’ll be hard pushed to find employees. I can’t split existing craftsmen and clerks pops yet as they are all under the 40k threshold.

    I have still not enough spare cash lying around in 1840 to promote a couple of capitalists in states that don’t have any yet.

    Continued to spend my diplomats on improving relations with Russia and Bavaria.



    ******
    Last edited by Garuda; 22-08-2007 at 10:33.
    'Gentlemen, we're in the stickiest situation since Sticky the stick-insect got stuck on a sticky bun' - Capt. E. Blackadder.

    He who binds to himself a joy, Does the winged life destroy;
    But he who kisses the joy as it flies, Lives in eternity's sun rise. - William Blake


    The Empire needs YOU.. Come and post something nice about my AAR. The House of Habsburg. Victoria Revolutions VIPR01. Winner of the WritAAR of the Week Award 13 January 2008.

  16. #16
    Major Michaeru's Avatar
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    The Rhine Crisis was triggered by a French demand that the Franco-German border should go along the Rhine.

  17. #17
    Village Idiot Garuda's Avatar
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    National Statistics 1840

    Changes since 1836:
    No government changes
    No reforms enacted

    Monarch: Emperor Ferdinand I
    Head of Government: Chancellor Klemens von Metternich
    Government: Conservative Metternich Faction

    1840
    Population: 37.3 millions (674 pops) (1836= 35.6 millions, growth +4.5%)
    GP status:7th ……Prestige: 91
    MP: 106 (2.09 pm)…..LP: 18 (0.34pm) ….RP: 0.47 pm….DP: 2.25 pa
    States: 21….Provinces: 93
    Factories: 10……Plurality: 2.1%......Literacy: 28.5%

    Population: 37.3 million
    National culture: South German 7.8m (21%)
    Non-National Cultures: Magyar 6.3m (17%), North Italian 5.2m (14%), Czech 3.7m (10%), Romanian 3.0m (8%), Polish 2.6m (7%) and others.
    52% farmers, 36% labourers—92% conservative, 8% liberal – 73% catholic, 17% orthodox—Dom issue= 97% moralism; Secondary issue= 55% lessaiz-faire, 26% limited citz

    Economy

    Production
    Daily production
    Cattle +9
    Fruit +8
    Coal +8
    Wool +7
    Iron +6
    Others

    8th highest exporter in the world…….[1836 figure]….growth 1836-1840
    Daily export: £153 per day……..[1836= £150]……+2.0%

    1840 financial report………[1836 figure]….growth 1836-1840
    Cash Reserves: £15k
    Income: £29,555……….[1836 = £28,731]…….+2.8%
    Expenses: £24,915……..[1836 = £20,703]……+20.3%

    Budget 1840
    Highest expenses spending….….[1836 figure]…growth 1836-1840
    Army Maintenance
    & Defence Spending: £7827…........[1836 = £5597]……..+39.8%
    Education: £7564.........................[1836 = £7638]……..-0.98%
    Imports: £6569…........................[1836 = £3255]……..+101.8%
    Crime: £2248

    Military

    Divisions
    Standing Army: 11……9inf, 2 cav 83,500 men
    Reserve Pool: 5………3 inf, 2 cav (1xHussar)
    Mobile Reserve: 0

    Total = 16 divisions

    Army Comparison
    France 22, Russia 18, Prussia 14, Ottomans 12, Egypt 12, Spain 10, UK 6.
    My alliance: 44 (Austria, Prussia, German Federation, Italian allies)

    Question: Does the AI deploy all of its divisions or does it keep some in the reserve pool? I ask because only those deployed on the map are shown in the ledger.

    Technologies researched since game start
    1. Muzzle loaded rifles
    2. Positivism
    3. Military Plans
    Current research project: Associationism
    Last edited by Garuda; 22-08-2007 at 12:32.
    'Gentlemen, we're in the stickiest situation since Sticky the stick-insect got stuck on a sticky bun' - Capt. E. Blackadder.

    He who binds to himself a joy, Does the winged life destroy;
    But he who kisses the joy as it flies, Lives in eternity's sun rise. - William Blake


    The Empire needs YOU.. Come and post something nice about my AAR. The House of Habsburg. Victoria Revolutions VIPR01. Winner of the WritAAR of the Week Award 13 January 2008.

  18. #18
    Village Idiot Garuda's Avatar
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    1841 - 1842



    HMS Terror was one of the two ships employed in the British Antarctic Expedition. 1839-1843. (See Antarctic Discoveries below). The ships were bomb class, an unusual type of vessel named after the torpedo-like missile they would carry in battle and had abnormally thick hulls which were to prove of great value in thick ice.


    Home Affairs

    Construction

    The building of the new Trento fort is completed whilst construction of another new fort begins. The site of the second fort of the 1839 defence initiative is Olomouc in Bohemia, along the northern route from Vienna to Berlin. The Olomouc fortifications were completed in 1843. On another northern route exiting Vienna, construction of a new railroad linking Vienna and Prague was completed in 1841.

    Croatian Nationalism


    Ljudevit Gaj


    Ljudevit Gaj, a writer and political ideologist led the Illyrian movement which aimed to create a Croation national establishment under Habsburg rule through linguistic and ethnic unity among the South Slavs. The Illyrian movement was more of an immediate threat to the diet of Hungary who wished to increase ‘magyarism’ in the Empire at the expense of any growing autonomy at the Croat diet. Where Hungary sought to increase the power of its nobility, the Illyrian movement sought to raise Croatian nationalism by a deepening of their culture and heritage.
    [Increase in consciousness and militancy for Croats in Austria].

    World Affairs

    France

    In November of 1839 France defied the terms of the treaty of Tafna by crossing the Biban pass resulting in renewed war with the Algerian tribesmen under Abd al-Qadir. The war ended in January 1841 with the annexation of Aldjazair. Al Qadir would continue to lead resistance to French rule by mounting guerrilla raids against military instalments.

    Tunisia

    Tunisia had been under the influences of the Ottoman Sultans since the sixteenth century. In March 1841 Sultan Abdulmecid I demanded that the Dey of Tunisia implement new reforms. Tunisia appealed to the French government for support to resist the Ottoman demands. France declined to be involved. Left powerless to resist Ottoman pressure, Tunisia implemented the Gulhane reforms becoming a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in the bargain and the Hizb al-Ittihad were brought to power.

    Great Britain

    The British government denied a petition from the chartist movement. The chartists were radicals seeking new reforms, main points of the chartist reforms including suffrage for men over the age of 21 and an end to the need for a property qualification for Parliament amongst others. Strikes and riots would mark the government’s refusal to acquiesce. Abroad, the Treaty of Nanking would finalise peace between the UK and China. In Afghanistan, Dost Mohammed implored Britain for diplomatic support over his claims to Peshawar. Prime Minister, Sir Robert Peel, declined to involve the British government and certainly the military due to the sensitive relations with Russia in central Asia.

    Captain Ross


    Captain James Clark Ross

    In 1847, Ross published his account of his expedition under the title of A Voyage of Discovery and Research to Southern and Antarctic Regions. Between 1839 and 1843 he commanded the Antarctic expedition of the HMS Erebus and HMS Terror and charted much of the coastline of the continent. Image of HMS Terror at top of update.


    Antarctic Discoveries

    In 1841, Captain James Clark Ross discovered the Ross Sea, Victoria Land, and the volcanoes Mount Erebus and Mount Terror. They sailed for 250 miles along the edge of the low, flat-topped ice shelf they called the Victoria Barrier, later named the Ross Ice Shelf in his honour. On his return Ross was knighted, and was nominated to the French order of the Legion d’Honneur.

    ******
    For those of you waiting for something exciting to actually happen in this AAR. Tune in for the next update, when something exciting actually happens…..


    ******
    'Gentlemen, we're in the stickiest situation since Sticky the stick-insect got stuck on a sticky bun' - Capt. E. Blackadder.

    He who binds to himself a joy, Does the winged life destroy;
    But he who kisses the joy as it flies, Lives in eternity's sun rise. - William Blake


    The Empire needs YOU.. Come and post something nice about my AAR. The House of Habsburg. Victoria Revolutions VIPR01. Winner of the WritAAR of the Week Award 13 January 2008.

  19. #19
    Major Michaeru's Avatar
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    The site of the second fort of the 1839 defence initiative is Olomouc in Bohemia, along the northern route from Vienna to Berlin.
    Or Berlin to Vienna, depending on the kind of war you plan to fight.

  20. #20
    Prodigous Pilgrim Blinky's Avatar
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    I actually just completed a VIP game as Austria. As you said, those pro-German residence parties will do wonders to any plans.

    Despite all the chaos, I put down the Italian and Hungarian revolutions while retaining the monarchy. Suffice to say, I hate to lose any war and over the course of the game defeated Prussia twice leading them to become my satellite, beating France twice in Europe and twice in colonial wars in defense of my satellite of Algiers. My last war was in 1929-1930 against Russia (they had just about the whole of Turkish Anatolia, Syria, and Iraq) leading to them becoming my satellite and the Ottomans recovering a portion of Turkey.

    I switched to wealth voting rights in the 1860's to usher in a near uninterrupted string of liberal rule. Never could bring in any social welfare programs, but that kept things in budget overall. Finished 3rd after Britain and US.

    Overall, an interesting world with Habsburgs controlling proxy states in Sardinia, Prussia, Russia, Bavaria, a few other German states, and Algiers with a little over 200 million population by the end.

    I wish you luck and if you manage to pull the victory against Prussia, I would vote for declaring yourself the German empire (I didn't go that route) where you'll get the chance to annex the south German states and have cores on the Rhineland.

    I'll be keeping my eye on this one.

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