Grady, objectionable as he was in other matters, ably characterized and popularized the New South, and that New South was--and it must have stung him terribly--partly financed by the Stevens Bill. But the New South--the industrial south--began before the war, in fits and starts, with the occasional small mill and factory in this city or that. Or, more often, the movement of Federal arsenals there or their creation, a process much quickened during the end of the Buchanan administration. Industrialization expanded during the war, the Confederacy starting a number of small industries across the south. Shortly after the war a Federal survey was needed, and part of Schurz's mission was to report upon southern industry. For strategic industries, his report found that the small arms factory in Richmond was burnt per Confederate orders on their retreat from the capital, but the naval yard in Norfolk was nearly undamaged, and ironically the explosives works on the outskirts of Richmond survived. The armament factory in Raleigh survived the war, as well as explosives works in Tallahassee, the fertilizer plant in Houston, and the ammunition works in Charleston and Mobile. Lumber mills in Fayetteville and Austin were "still quite operational...and a considerable source of employment," and there was a clothes factory in New Orleans, captured early in the war. It was fed before that, and after the end of the war, by fabric mills in Charleston and Montgomery. "All industry in Atlanta had been burnt," but excepting those who enlisted and were casualties the workers had survived. Lastly the furniture industry in north-east Texas, "despite Unionist discontent, and various suppressive massacres"--especially Gainesville, home to a fair portion of it--did manage to survive the war. The first post-war developement was also underway, Schurz found: shipbuilding on the easter shore of the Mississippi, which during the war had provided some of the Confederacy's river ironclads and timberclads, was "beginning to move towards and concentrate in" Biloxi, but retooling and repairs would take a year before it would be a serious source of employment. So there was a base to start from; and Congress would soon build upon it, beyond Clay's wildest dreams of government aid for industry.