As for Westernization, I took a slightly unorthodox route...
Lorraine managed to annex Hesse, but lost its other two providences. When I found it, I thought it was a One providence minor I could annex, so I declared war. Then I found they had Hesse, so instead I took that. I'm now waiting for Westernization with Mecklenburg (already have Western Arms Trade). I just feel sorry for Lorraine, getting invaded by a bunch of low tech Africans on your homeland, had to be quite a shame, I can just imagine the conversation between Lorraine's king and his advisors:
Advisor: Sir, we've been attacked.
King: By who?
Advisor: Swahili my lord?
King: Where is that kingdom?
Advisor: In East Africa.
King: How did they get here?
Advisor: They walked milord.
King: They walked?
Advisor: Yes milord, and they offered us peace, we have to give them half our kingdom?
King: We're giving half our kingdom to a bunch of low tech Africans?
Advisor: Yes sir, they've won a total victory over us.
King: Fine, accept.
Advisor: It has been done milord, also, Burgundy just sent a messenger, they've also declared war.