36's First Two Quarters - The Prologue
Corpul 1 Armata (1st Army Corps) General Antonescu (3/0)
Romania, at the start of 1936, was a shadow of the former interwar democracy, moving fast towards the autoritharism of a Royal Dictatorship. After the Argetoianu goverment of 1931, a National Unity Cabinet, comprising of representatives from noumerous parties, and the growing control of state affairs by the large industrial entrepreneurs, adding to the important decline of public trust in the party sistem, Carol II was regarded as the only saviour from the growing crissis, corruption and general desillusion.
The Royal Cabinet
The laws of 7th of April and 9th of July 1934 put an official end to the democracy, by limiting the activity of political parties, enpowering the Goverment to legislate by ignoring the Parliament and instituting censorship and the state of emergency indefinitly. Using the animosities inside the major parties Carol II applied the "divide and conquer" strategy brilliantly, a succesion of breake-away parties insuring that a parliamentary majority will be imposibble to achieve.
The Tatarescu Cabinet, governing from 1934, was no more than a docile instrument in the hand of the king*. It's orientation was social-conservative, beeing comprised of two main groups: the military ministers, of which the most proemient beeing the Chief of Staff, Ion Victor Antonescu, and the social-liberal industrialist ministers (Madgearu, Gafencu, Calinescu). Due to Carol's lack of trust for the generals, his disrespect for the royal immage mentained by his predecessors, and the weakness of the Prime Minister, numerous conflicts plagued the cabinet.
In the foreign arena, the Kingdom mentained good relation with both the western democracies and the fascist european powers. The relations with France and the UK, the traditional alies of Romania, were rather constant (from +47 to +44, and from +53 to +56 respectively, in the first half of 1936), but in respect to the US the situation was totaly different (+4 to +8), leaving the romanian diplomacy to wonder uppon the real support that could be provided by the democratic block. The single reminder of the old alliance was a Mutal Non-aggression Pact with France... Furthermore, the conciliatorist, optimistic and seemingly uncomitted attitude of these countries forced a strategic shift towards other posible powers that would guarrantee the romanian soveignty.
Romania and it's neighbours
From Italy came noumerous approching initiatives, the bilateral relations beeing improuved dramaticly (from +47 to +64), making Italy Romania's most important strategic partner. The Italian foreign campain in the South-Eastern Europe was acompanied by an increse in the German interes in Romania, materialised mostly in the comercial sector (relations increse from +47 to +49). Also, Italy and Germany are the only major powers guaranteing our territorial integrity.
The relations with Japan are terrible, yet the romanian goverment had no particular interest in the far-east(-48 to -46)
The Soviet Union, Romania's largest neighbour, and the only major power with which we shared a (contested) border, had a growing revisionist and cold attitude towards Romania (from -2 to -5) that worried Bucharest more than anything else. From 1918 USSR has been considered the greatest danger to the Romanian Kingdom, due to it's territorial claims and the doctrine of spreading the communist revolution. All tentatives of mediating the diplomatic conflict resulted in failure, and a conflict with them seems unavoidable, even if a Mutual Non-aggression Pact is still active.
Closer to home, the South-Eastern Europe was dominated by a security mechanism composed of The Little Entante and The Balcanic Entante, initiated and endorsed in the past decade by Romania together with Yugoslavia, Cechoslovacia, Poland, Grece and Turkey. Yet, the viability of this set of accords is debatable without the support of France and the UK. Relations with this neighbours improved slightly in the case of Poland and Cechoslovacia (from +43 to +46, and from +23 to +26 respectevly) and worsened in the case of Yugoslavia and Grece (from +97 to +94, and from +97 to +94 respectevly). With all this countries Romania has Mutual Non-aggression Pacts and guaratees.
Concerning Hungary and Bulgaria, their revisionist attitude is visible, yet the relations with them are improuving(from +3 to +5, and from +27 to +29 respectevly), the two countries seeking a favorable moment to press their claims.
The romanian industrial capacity, eventhow sizable in South-Eastern Europe, is clearly not nearly enough to insure the the economical and military needs of a kingdom in such a dangerous strategical position. A third of the 30 base IC was concentrated in the key provinces of Bucharest and Ploesti, the rest beeing distributed unevenly. The infrastructure was in a better shape, with an average of 75,6% and a minimum of 60% in the 4 mountain provinces, so the Cabinet didn't accepted any plan for future upgrade.
After a bitter debate, Virgil Madgearu announced in January a spectacular industry building program, designed to improve the base IC by 1/3. Yet, the insueing economical dificulties ment that no more than 50% of the needed funding was recived. The consumer goods production also needed a sizable slice of the budget (nearly 15%).
In the field of research, Romania had just two tech slots, with medium research teams available, and no one to trade blueprints with. An alliance with a major industrial power was considered imperative, yet there was no clear agreement on just who that might be. The MAN and Carbosim finished in spring research of Census Tabulating and Basic Machine Tools, and now work is in progress for Mechanised Agriculture and Basic Computing at MAN and the University of Bucharest.
Statistical figures 1 January 36 - 1 July 36
Romania's most important natural resource was the oil, with a impressive production of 56 units/day. In accordance, oil was to be the Kingdom's main export, to compensate for the shortage of other resources. The main deficit was in energy and metal, of which great quantities were needed to sustain the economy.
Romania's economical strategy, aimed at recovering from the economical crisis by investing in industry needes a high degree of stability and fine tunning. Yet, the instability and corruption dued to the royal authoritarism, as well as the need for a strategic repositioning, meant that in the spring of 1936 a chain of shortages hit the country. The reserves of suplies were all but exhausted, and all indicators save oil hit red.
A few trade agreements proposed by Italy seemd to bring salvation, but it soon became aparent that the country's growing needs could not be suported only by this. In March a romanian delegation headed by Madgearu, along with the foreign minister, Gafenco, and Antonescu, the Chief of Staff, traveled to Berlin to negociate new trade deals. The jorney was a succes, Germany beeing verry simpathetic and almoust excesively interested in the romanian oil considering it's courrent needs. The deals arranged for the export of all the oil not used, in return reciving energy, metal, some rare materials and even some suplies, as few romanian ICs could be spared for their production at home.
The trade summay at 1 July 36
The Romanian Royal Land Forces consisted of 31 divisions, a figure considered sufficient for the moment. Due to the fact that many of these divisions were not up to strength, the Chief of the Army, Gheorghe Tatarascu, asked for funding and resources to replenish them. Considering the growing threat posed by the hungarian and bulgarian revisionism, the Government aprooved the mobilisation of about 128000 conscripts, a lot of IC beeing spent for this in the spring months.
The region's geography
Of the 31 divisions, 21 are infantry, 6 cavalry, 3 mountain and 1 light armored, to which were added 8 suport brigades. Dispite the demands for a total upgrade of the now-obsolite infantry and cavalry divisions (Greate War tech), such a project was indefinitly posponed. The mountain divisions are quite new, as the light armored division is equiped with R1 tankettes of czech origin. The Romanian Army is ranked 9th in the world, and the most powerful in South-Eastern Europe.
Aeronautica Regala Romana (The Royal Romanian Airforce) functions as suport for the Army, being organised into Gruparea Aeriana de Lupta (The Combat Air Grouping), composed of an interceptor group, a tactical bomber group, and a naval bomber group. Dispite te rejection of the plans to create a further interceptor group and two tactical bomber groups, the ARR recived full-funding for the upgrade of it's planes. The Bristol Blenheim Mk.I interwar tactical bomber was upgraded to Bloch MB.210 early tactical bomber, and the PZLP.11c interwar fighter was upgraded to Hawker Hurricane Mk.I early fighter. Only the SIAI-Marchetti SM.79 Sparviero basic naval bomber could not be upgraded due to lack of technology for it. The ARR is considered the most powerful airforce in South-Eastern Europe.
Marina Regala Romana(The Royal Romanian Navy) is small, being made up of a squadron of Regele Ferdinand class Great War destroyers, and a squadron of Delfinul class dive boats, grouped in the Flota de Mare (The Sea Fleet).
Divizia 1 Infanterie (1st Infantry Division) InfCorpul 2 Armata (2nd Army Corps) Lt General Ionascu (2/0, Fortress Buster)
Divizia 2 Infanterie (2nd Infantry Division) - Inf
Divizia 3 Infanterie (3rd Infantry Division) - Inf
Divizia 4 Infanterie (4th Infantry Division) - Inf
Divizia 5 Infanterie (6th Infantry Division) Inf-ArtCorpul 3 Armata (3rd Army Corps) Lt General Phelps (3/0, Offensive Doctrine)
Divizia 6 Infanterie (7th Infantry Division) Inf-Art
Divizia 7 Infanterie (7th Infantry Division) InfCorpul 4 Armata (4th Army Corps) General Sanatescu (2/0)
Divizia 8 Infanterie (8th Infantry Division) Inf
Divizia 9 Infanterie (9th Infantry Division) Inf
Divizia 13 Infanterie (13th Infantry Division) InfCorpul 5 Armata (5th Army Corps) Lt General Schwab (2/0, Offensive Doctrine)
Divizia 14 Infanterie (14th Infantry Division) Inf
Divizia 15 Infanterie (15th Infantry Division) Inf
Divizia 16 Infanterie (16th Infantry Division) Inf-ArtCorpul 6 Armata (4th Army Corps) Lt General Zaharescu (2/0, Engineer)
Divizia 17 Infanterie (17 th Infantry Division) Inf-AT
Divizia 18 Infanterie (18 th Infantry Division) Inf-AA
Divizia 19 Infanterie (19th Infantry Division) Inf-ArtCorpul Vanatori de Munte (Mountain Hunters Corps) Lt General Ionescu-Sinaia (2/0, Commando)
Divizia 20 Infanterie (20th Infantry Division) Inf-AT
Divizia 21 Infanterie (21th Infantry Division) Inf-AA
Divizia 1 Vanatori de Munte (1st Mountain Hunters Division) MtnCorpul Blindate (Armored Corps) General Constantinescu-Claps (2/0, Defensive Doctrine)
Divizia 2 Vanatori de Munte (2nd Mountain Hunters Division) - Mtn
Divizia 3 Vanatori de Munte (3rd Mountain Hunters Division) - Mtn
Divizia 1 Care de Lupta (1st Tank Division) L ArmCorpul Cavalerie (Cavalry Corps) Lt General Rozin (2/0, Offensive Doctrine)
Divizia 10 Infanterie (10th Infantry Division) Inf
Divizia 11 Infanterie (11th Infantry Division) Inf
Divizia 12 Infanterie (12th Infantry Division) Inf
Divizia 1 Rosiori (1st Cavalry Division) CavCorpul Garda Calare (Horse Guard Corps) Lt General Nicolae Sova (0/0)
Divizia 2 Rosiori (2nd Cavalry Division) - Cav
Divizia 3 Rosiori (3rd Cavalry Division) - Cav
Divizia 4 Garda Calare (4th Horse Guard Division) CavGruparea Aeriana de Lupta (Combat Air Grouping) Lt General Gheorghiu (1/0, Superior Tactician)
Divizia 5 Rosiori (5th Cavalry Division) - Cav
Divizia 6 Rosiori (6th Cavalry Division) Cav
Grup 1 Vanatoare (1st Fighter Group) Int FFlota de Mare (Sea Naval Force) Rear Admiral Macellariu (3/0, Blocade Runner)
Grup 2 Bombardament (2nd Bomber Group) - Tac
Grup 3 Naval (3rd Naval Group) - Nav
Escadronul NMS Regele Ferdinand (NMS Regele Ferdinand Squadron) DD
Escadronul NMS Delfinul (NMS Delfinul Squadron) SS