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Thread: 'The Patriot's Sword': The Republic of Canada

  1. #1

    'The Patriot's Sword': The Republic of Canada

    Prologue: 1866-80, Part I.



    Fenian soldier's song:
    We are the Fenian Brotherhood, skilled in the arts of war,
    And we're going to fight for Ireland, the land we adore,
    Many battles we have won, along with the boys in blue,
    And we'll go and capture Canada, for we've nothing else to do


    The Great War of Liberation as the 1866 Fenian Invasion of Canada later became known was both a success beyond the wildest dreams of it's instigators and an overall failure.

    In April 1866 an abortive raid by the Fenian Brotherhood (an Irish Nationalist organisation based in America and including a large number of Civil War veterans in its ranks) in Campobello Island, New Brunswick was thwarted by intervention from the American Goverment. No doubt had the American Goverment continued this interventionist policy future raids, and perhaps the entire scheme would have foundered. Yet, whether due to sudden loss of nerve or lingering anti-British sentiment, this was to be the last time Washington would restrain the Fenian movement, and even under the vastly more serious events that followed the Americans would remain on the fence.

    General John O'Neill, the acting Fenian commander, led almost 4000 battle hardened veterans into Ontario on 1st June 1866. By a remarkable stroke of luck the gunboat USS Michigan, which was in the area and would have been fatal to the crossing failed to make an appearance - or, some theorists claim, was purposefully directed away. This very large force easily crushed local Canadian millitia at the Battle of Ridgeway. Flushed with success the Fenians captured Port Colborne (14th June) and with it the strategically vital Welland Canal.


    Above: The Fenian charge at the Battle of Ridgeway


    By now it was clear to the Canadians that Fenians, far from being the nuisance they had been in April were a very serious and growing threat. Forces were quickly assembled to contain the menace but the situation remained grave: though the British in theory had almost 30,000 men under arms in Canada, more than 25,000 was militia of doubtful quality and training and most were spread out across Canada. A very serious defeat at Hamilton on 10th July were three whole companies of millitia were wiped out intesified the nature of the crisis.

    In America meanwhile the victories in Canada (and the continuing inaction of President Johnson) had an immense impact on the huge Irish diaspora on the East Coast. Prior to this, even many Fenians, including the organisations de facto leader John O'Mahony had considered the Canadian raid a mistake and indeed the organisation had suffered a schism due to this. Now however the 'Canada Strategy' seemed suddenly vindicated and thousands of volunteers flooded into Fenian ranks. Thanks to the extensive support from sections of the Union Army the Fenians were soon able to organise a well armed force of some 13,000, organised into three under strength divisions.

    Meanwhile the Fenians reached the outskirts of Toronto at the beginning of August. O'Neill had been worried that he lacked the men to take the city, but to his suprised delight he found his army being reinforced by, of all things, Canadians. These men, veterans of the old Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 had been inspired by O'Neill's victories and flocked to his banner, so that by the third of August his force stood at some 6,000 men, though the shortage of ammunition and (especially) artillery, was becoming a worry. The British according to his intelligence reports had some 5000 soldiers defending the city - largely green millitia, but including a regiment of regular cavalry - the much feared 11th Hussars ('the Cherry Pickers'), with officers trained in the crucible of the Crimean War.

    It was agreed within both the Fenian and British commands that the Battle of Toronto would be decisive. A Fenian defeat would spell the end of the whole rebellion. A British defeat on the other hand would lead to the collapse of British control in Ontario, and possibly elsewhere.

    Both sides carefully drew up their plans...

    To Be Continued...


    I'm starting a new AAR (don't worry I'm continuing my Crusader Kings ARR), Canada 1881, but with a slight twist (which you've no doubt guessed by now ).

    I'll try and wrap up the prologue shortly, but it is important to show exactly where Canada stands in 1881 and why.

    Well that's pretty much it for the moment, but I'll be back shortly. Hope people are interested.
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  2. #2
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    Will be watching.

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  3. #3
    Prologue: 1866-80, Part II.


    Above: General. John O'Neill, Fenian Commander


    The Fenian army halted a couple of miles outside Toronto on the 6th August, then withdrew another mile to find better ground for an encampment. O'Neilll needed in any case to give his weary troops a rest, but it served to examine the lay of the land. Setting the fresher Canadian volunteers to dig a fortified trench he sat down, intending to maintain his position for a few days, and hopefully get back in touch with Fenian's in America.

    The British commander, Colonel Talbot evidently misinterpreted the Fenian withdrawl as a full retreat sounded by word of Toronto's admitedly fairly formidable defence. Ordering his cavalry to run down and outflank the retreating army Talbot was horrified to discover a cleverly prepared and entrenched position, where the suprised Fenians drove off his cavalry with heavy lossess. Determined to avoid a rout Talbot ordered his green levies in in an attempt to take the Fenian trench by bayonet if necessary. The inexprienced millitia were mown down in droves and the survivors morale crumbled. The Canadians surrendered, and Toronto was won for the Fenians.

    The Battle of Lake Ontario (as it was widely known) caused a worldwide stir. It was percieved (innaccurately) that a rag tag mob of Irish malcontents had wiped out a force of hardened British regulars. That the Fenians were themselves hardened veterans, and the Canadians green millitia, was conviently overlooked.

    Nowhere was news of the British defeat greeted with more enthusiasm than in Paris. The Emporer Napoleon III had previously been sympathetic to the Irish Nationalist cause, which he had often entertained hopes of being a chink in the impregnable British armour, which would allow France to regain its rightful place as the dominant force in Europe. Furthermore should the Fenians somehow succeed France would gain a valuable ally in North America to counterbalance the loss of Mexico. Now he outraged the British by making public statements of sympathy with the "poor Irish, oppressed by perfidious Albion", statements which struck accord across Europe where many were envious of Britain's prowress. Privately he sent a telegram of support for the Fenians with the promise of money, weapons, food and 'volunteers' (French troops, officially fighting as civilian volunteers).

    The British were suddenly faced with a huge and growing problem. With France suddenly looking bellicose most of the Navy and Army was needed at home just in case the Emporer's dreams of rivalling his famous predecessor became reality. Additional troops were needed in various potential hotspots, including of course Ireland (which ironically remained largely quiet during this period with many potential rebels joining the fight directly in Canada rather than at home). All of this allowed only a tiny fraction of Imperial might to be used in Canada, where the tide was beginning to turn.

    In September the second wave of Fenian troops crossed the border and began moving into Quebec. Tentative feelers from both Napoleon and O'Neill towards the French Canadians had produced slightly dissapointing results; while many had no love for the British administration they were somewhat suspicous of these new Irish interlopers. Nevertheless several companies of volunteers joined the cause and a wave of rioting and sabotage hampered British-Canadian efforts in the area.

    As Winter began it briefly seemed like Fenian success was petering out, and the British even managed to achieve a victory on 12th December when Montreal was recaptured. It was not to be however; by this point the numerical advantage had passed to the Fenians who now had over 30,000 Irish, American, French and French Canadian troops in Canada, well supplied with weapons, ammunition and even uniforms provided by Napoleon against under 10,000 weary, low morale Canadian millitia. Montreal was retaken by the Fenians on St Stephen's Day (26 December). It was the beginning of the end.

    In the second week of March 1867 the very last substantial Canadian forces in the East surrendered in Halifax, and 2 days later the same happened in Vancouver. On the 14th March in Montreal John O'Neill declared the Republic of Canada. He was at once recognised by the French.

    Some faction in the British goverment wanted to fight on, but by now it was obvious to Gladstone's administration that the war was long lost. Canada could be renconquered - at an estimated cost of £60 million and almost certain war with France or the United States (or possibly both). Time to do a deal.


    Above: The signing of the Treaty of London


    The Treaty of London took place on 5th September 1867 and was signed by the Canadian, British and French goverments with witnesses from the American Goverment. It blunt terms the British, in exchange for certain naval concessions and retained British control of Newfoundland agreed to recognise the new Repulic. The Republic of Canada agreed to allow British merchants and firms free access to Canadian markets and not to raise tariffs against Imperial produce. The Irish situation remained critical: the British categorically ruled out any change in the status of Ireland and after much soul searching the Canadian goverment agreed. The best that could be done for the moment O'Neill argued, was to set up an example of Irish self goverment in North America, and (covertly) channel resources into Nationalist organisations.

    O'Neill returned in triumph to Canada, but already there was growing criticism from his rivals within the Fenian organisation. In some ways merely defeating the British would prove easy compared with the turbulent times in the decade ahead...

    To Be Continued...
    Last edited by RossN; 22-08-2005 at 13:31.
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  4. #4
    Prologue: 1866-80, Part III.

    In the immediate aftermath of the Treaty and from the provisional capital of Montreal, the new Provisional Goverment - essentially the Fenian Army Council - rapidly enacted laws for the new state: the nation was to be a democracy (of exactly which form to be determined later), to have as it's flag the Irish gold harp on green background and to have three official languages - Irish (Gaeligh), English and French.


    Above: The first public session of the Provisional Goverment, October 1867


    The Canadians proved remarkably accepting of the new administration; while there was some smouldering resentment the overall mood was of acquiescence, even (in French Canadian and Indian areas) acceptance. It was difficult for even the staunchest Loyalist to maintain much enthusiasm for a Britain that had so readily abandoned them. Much of the embryonic nationalistic sentiment that had been growing in the country shifted towards support of the new country. Nevertheless the British population declined after the war, a decline fortunately offset by the emmigration of Irish from Ireland and America, furthering diluting a potential pool of malcontents.

    Unquestionably the dashing gallant General O'Neill aided matters. A man of considerable personal charm and reputation O'Neill, who was unanimously elected leader of the Provisional Goverment in December '67, toured the country at breakneck pace promoting the new cause and winning hearts and minds. At the end of his nation wide tour in June, he could justly claim to have converted the Canadian populace, the majority of whom now swung behind the Goverment.

    But what type of goverment? The Fenians were in disagreement at that point.

    A substantial minority, the 'Imperialists' were in favour of setting up an Empire based on France, with either John O'Neill or Napoléon Eugène (the Prince Imperial) as Emporer. This faction had been most impressed by Napoleon III during the war and enjoyed some support in the French Canadian community. It suffered an early defeat when O'Neill turned down an offer of the throne and the Council voted against Napoléon on the grounds that he would shortly inherit his fathers throne which would essentially make Canada a vassal of France. The faction soon became sidetracked in infighting and rapidly declined in influence after 1869.

    A small 'Royalist' faction, which advocated offering the throne to the Duke of Leinster was talked about and even got to the stage of drafting an offer to the Duke, but never got off the ground.

    The primary battle was between those who advocated an American style Republic, and those who wanted something closer the British model (with a President rather than Monarch). Tempers flared throughout as delegates from each side passionately argued their cause. John O'Mahony, who had entered the fray late in the game sat on the fence, ambitously watching his options. O'Neill scrupuously avoided intervention as head of the army.


    Above: Though thankfully rare, armed conflict occasionally broke out between the factions as in this December '69 occurence in Toronto.

    Eventually it came to a vote on 12th Februay 1870 when O'Mahony managed to wield sufficent control to call a straight vote. In the end it turned out 43 fro an American Republic, 36 for a British style parliament, 4 for an Empire, and 4 abstentions. Montreal was chosen as the new capital.

    At the first election in September 1871 dozens of parties participated, but John O'Neill's moderate conservative 'Nationalist Party' won nearly 80% of the vote as Canadians of all shades fell in behide it. John O'Neill became the first President of the Republic of Canada, with O'Mahony as Vice President.

    The next decade was spent rebuilding the country after the war and setting up the new administration and goverment. Thus there was little time for foreign adventures, though O'Neill worked strenuously to build up friendly relations with the "Southern Giant" - the US, restore them with Britain (it would do the cause of Irish Nationalism no good if Canada went to war against Britain again so soon after its foundation). Relations with France cooled greatly after the fall of Napoleon III, but recovered somewhat by the end of the decade.

    O'Neill died of natural causes in 1876, allowing O'Mahony to take over the vibrant young nation as it headed into the 1880's...

    End of Prologue
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  5. #5
    Title weychun's Avatar
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    Irish eh. So, do you have Ireland as a Canadian core as well, and how about Irish culture, and Irish POPs in Canada?

  6. #6
    Quote Originally Posted by weychun
    Irish eh.
    Heh.

    Canada doesn't have Ireland as a core no (I'm going for more of a country in exile feel), but I replaced 'British' with 'Irish' for the main culture, swapped the Irish and British POP's in Ontario and Quebec (so the Irish % of the population doubled while the British % dropped) and changed the religion to Catholic (which should go down well with the French Canadians ).

    I'm afraid I don't know that much about Canada, so a lot of the characters will be either fictional or Irish emigres rather than Canadian, though I'll try a few.
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  7. #7
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    Very interesting so far. I seem to recall the Fenian Brotherhood made an appearance in my Ireland AAR, although certainly not as conquerors of Canada! Good luck and all!

  8. #8
    Glad you like it Fiftypence. The Fenians were just lucky here I guess - no US interference, Napoleon III on their side, and O'Neill turning out to be a decent general.

    Only problem is I'm starting so late (1881!) I'm worried not much will happen!

    Ok here we go. Sorry if this first episode is a little dry, but I need to get some stuff out of the way first. It will liven up I promise!

    Part 1: The Trans-Canadian Railway


    Above: Canadian and American infastructure in 1881. The proposed Trans-Canadian Railway is picked out in red.

    If President Mahony could take confort in the peaceful state of his nation some of the facts revealed in 1881 census were disquieting to say the least. The population stood at some 4, 948,000 souls - a respectable figure if not in the same league as the "Southern Giant", with a literacy rate of 60%. An across the board 50% tax was placed on all citizens and a maximum tariff wall get money in the country, which was diverted into education. So far so good. On the other hand the Irish population (even with recent immigration) stood at a mere 7% of the population, Canada lacked sufficent coal, iron and even glassware to power it's industries and industry was almost entirely confined to a small triangle on the West Coast.

    Well plainly that wouldn't do and in August 1881 President Mahony made a proud public boast in Ottowa: the East and West Coasts were to be joined by a mighty 'Trans-Canadian Railway', to awaken the West and show the world just how formidable the young country was. Mahony grandly proclaimed it would equal "anything in the South". (A waggish editorial the next day, suggested he'd perhaps forgotten he wasn't in New York any more and had actually meant Mexico as the "South").

    It was immense undertaking and from the start critics in the Senate and Congress, both within and without the ruling Nationalist Party declared it a scam, cleverly designed to draw attention away from the Nationalists lack of Economic policies of any substance. Economists also pointed out it would probably be more cost efficent to cover Ontario or Quebec with railways and then branch out. But the Trans-Canadian had fired the imagination so that was that. Work began in October 1881 and it was hoped that Vancouver and the Paciffic would be reached by October 1883.

    Almost at once it became clear to the unfortunate businessmen who had been roped into the scheme that the deadline was impossibly conservative and the funds available were completely insufficent. Time and again work stopped for weeks or even months as the investors were forced to return to Montreal, cap in hand to beg for more funds. Frequently bandits raided the operation, forcing yet more money to be pumped into guards.


    Above: The Trans-Canadian Railway under construction


    To add to their woes there was the uncertain situation in the middle of the country regarding the Indians. While the previous British administration had signed treaties with the Cree, the Fenian Goverment had announced it didn't feel bound to anything signed by the British. So work in the Cree owned lands in Saskatchewan was ambivalent to say the least as no one, not the Cree, the Motreal Goverment or the unfortunate investors could tell what situation was, until after it had changed. Which it did frequently. Thus the railway workers had to be prepared for anything from full scale war with the Indians to friendly locals at a moments notice. Unsuprsingly many investors began suffering nervous complaints, which had the unexpected benefit of giving gainful employment to the nations many snakeoil vendors.

    Uncortably warm Summers turned into freezing winters and back again as the years dragged on. The target date was reached and passed to Mahoney's utter fury who summoned everyone else involved to his office to discover a culprit who wasn't himself, and also, in an admirable display of patriotism and inclusiveness curse at them in all three national languages.

    Eventually after countless attacks by disease, bears, Cree, bandits, wolves, the weather, the landscape and auditors the weary workmen finally rolled into Vancouver on 15th December 1885. The Paciffic was reached! The glorious Trans-Canadian Railway was complete, only a year overdue at the cost of a mere 845 workers (and 1,000 pack animals). When the local newspaper complained the following day that the line had not in fact reached the Western most part of the Republic, he was promptly lynched by a group of workers and investors.

    The following day, having sent a telegram ahead the weary investors decided to take a little luxury and arrive in Montreal in style on the train.

    About two miles out of Vancouver they were held by a gang of desperado's, thus doubly insuring their claim to history as being both the builders of the Trans-Canadian Railway and the first victims of proffesional train robbery in Canadian history.

    President Mahony was not amused.

    Last edited by RossN; 22-08-2005 at 23:21.
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  9. #9
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    Ah, a Fenian what-if. I remember reading a fiction book on this incident not too long ago. I look forward to seeing how you develop this!

  10. #10
    There was actually an article in Military History about it some years back. Interesting read, the Irish attacked Canada twice, the only reason they quit the first time was they ran out of supplies. But by the time they came back the Canadians had raised a real army and beat them off.

    So I'll be reading this, yes, I will...
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  11. #11
    Colonel BBBD's Avatar

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    Good work, though I would have industrialised the east first.
    Look forward to you DOW on the US and satteliting them
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  12. #12
    Field Marshal GhostWriter's Avatar

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    Quote Originally Posted by Henry v. Keiper
    There was actually an article in Military History about it some years back. Interesting read,...
    do you know the issue of Military History that appeared in? i probably don't have it as i don't remember it, but i would like to look for it.

    excellent start !



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  13. #13
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    Am following. I find the Irish conquest of Canada abit... unlikely shall we say, but being ignorant of Canadian history, I'll let it pass - besides, its a very fun AAR.

    Any geopolitical plans (alliance with France?)?
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  14. #14
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    This seems very interresting. Usually I see Canada conquered by USA in my games.

  15. #15
    Title weychun's Avatar
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    No offence but the picture doesn't look like the Canadian rail is under construction is it?

  16. #16
    Part 2: Party Politics


    Above: Montreal in the early 80's


    The Fenians had originally invaded Canda with the plan of using it as a bargaining chip with which to gain Irish independce. Unfortunatly for them, they underestimated both the British commitment to keeping Ireland and their need to keep a Canada halfway to indepence anyway. So to their suprise they had suddenly found themselves in possession of a country they hadn't expected to run in the first place.

    During the 70's as the Fenians slowly got to grips with their changed situation two contrasting views emerged: The Tradtionalists and the Radicals. The Tradtionalists were composed of most of the Fenian Old Guard, who saw Canada as merely another base from which to iniate schemes in Ireland - a sort of New York writ large. John O'Mahony, that old Fenian of Fenian's and President of Canada since 1876 was the chief propent of this view. Canada in his view, was a personal demense to be run at profit if possible. Even the much vaunted 'Trans-Canadian' was intended to impress other Fenians with his clout.

    Against this the Radicals were, initially at least, much weaker and less numerous. Mainly composed of some younger American born Fenians and increasingly immigrants from Ireland itself, the Radicals had come to very different conclusions: principally that they should concentrate on building up a powerful and prosperous Canadian republic to eventually intervene in Ireland at a later date. Intellectuals inside the faction proposed making Canada into an 'Ireland in Exile': creating a functioning Irish state in North America and (hopefully) attracting large numbers of Irish immigrants to Canada. As the Radicals pointed out Canada had less than 5 millions and could easily support the entire population of Ireland with no plenty of elbow room.

    The factions frostilly remained on speaking terms in the broad church conservative Nationalist Party in the 1879 Election, where Mahoney won a second term, due largely to personal experience rather than any sterling qualities he displayed. A schism was obiously in the works however and only heated when the Radicals gained a dynamic, charismatic leader in the shape of a young man who had just emmigrated from Ireland: Charles Stewart Parnell.


    Above: Charles Stewart Parnell, 1846-1911


    Parnell was an Anglo-Irish Wicklow landord with an American mother. After studying in Cambridge he had briefly considered going into British politics, before, to the suprise of his peers deciding to emigrate to Canada in 1874, one of the earliest of what would eventually become a steady stream of talented Irishmen and women who decided to seek their fortune in the young state.

    With his education and intellect Parnell was very successful, becoming a Senator for Alberta in '79. Though not a great speaker especially at first, Parnell had considerable personal charm and organisational skills and an iron will. Though officially part of the same party he became a serious thorn in the side of O'Mahony with his criticisms of the way the Trans-Canadian was being built (Parnell was fully in favour of the idea, he just felt it was being implemented poorly) and O'Mahony's paranoid refusual to sell the Canadian Steel surplus, which he suspected was damaging the economy.

    An almighty row in the Nationalist Party blew up over Canadian foreign policy in '81. In Europe a major war had broken out between on the one hand France and on the other the Dreikaiserbund - a fearsome alliance of Russia, Germany and Austro-Hungary. At Parnell's uring Mahoney offered alliance to France but was turned down - for which the Radicals largely blamed O'Mahony's indifferent foreign policy. When a similar alliance with the friendly US fell down a few months later Parnell, often a silent and forbiding presence in the House was accused wildly by an O'Mahonyite of sabotaging the treaty by failing to support the treaty despite supposedly being close friends with the American abassoder. To this the Radical leader gave a stinging reply finishing with:

    "I should have been only too pleased to follow (O'Mahony) in anything had (he) led in anything."

    Few doubted that Parnell and the radicals hoped to gain power in the 1883 Election as the date for the start of campaigning approached it was only a question of how...
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  17. #17
    Field Marshal GhostWriter's Avatar

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    Quote Originally Posted by RossN
    A mighty row in the Nationalist Party blew up over Canadian foreign policy in '81...
    i can understand the US declining an alliance, but not France. btw, what was the US population in 1881? [Canada's population was about 5 million.]

    excellent update !
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  18. #18
    Quote Originally Posted by GhostWriter
    i can understand the US declining an alliance, but not France. btw, what was the US population in 1881? [Canada's population was about 5 million.]

    excellent update !
    About 51 million.

    IRL Canada had 8,556,000 people in 1920 and I'm hoping to have at least 10,000,000 with at least 25% Irish (those are my basic game end goals).

    Oh and thanks!

    Next Up: The Fenian Ram affair...
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  19. #19
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    Parnell, excellent he will turn the Republic around.

    The Fenian Ram incident? Sounds promising war between Canada and France perhaps? Damn Frenchies
    Help! Help! I'm being repressed

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  20. #20
    Part 3: The Fenian Ram Affair

    There was a certain Irishman and Fenian sympathiser named John Philip Holland, who had, since 1873 been living in America. A clever engineer he had designed a revoloutionary new submersible - the first true submarine in fact. The US navy turned down his proposals so Holland moved to Canada, hoping to build and sell his design to the Fenian goverment.

    Holland's proposals did indeed attract interest and after carefully reviewing his notes the War Department agreed to fund a prototype.

    RCS ('Republic of Canada Ship') Granuaile as the boat was officially called was named after the legendary 'pirate queen' Grace O'Malley was launched in December 1881 in a grand ceremony attended by Vice-President Devoy, Senator Parnell and assorted notables. To great applause Hoolland led his submarine around Halifax harbour displaying it's qualities. At a displacement of 19 tons, length of 31 feet and crew of 3 she was not a large vessel, but she was impressive in other ways. She could dive to a depth of 60 feet and was armed with a fearsome sounding nine-inch pneumatic gun, which could shoot a 6 foot projectile into a ships hull! Holland bragged it could easily hole and sink a light cruiser.


    Above: RCS Granuaile, aka The Fenian Ram, in drydock, Janurary 1882.


    Some wag in the local rag termed it 'The Fenian Ram', and to the annoyance of all involved the name stuck.

    Almost at one The Fenian Ram/RCS Granuaile became involved in a political quagmire. The Traditionalists wanted to use the machine, or a slightly larger ocean-going version to covertly supply dissidents in Ireland and perhaps discretely engage in anti-British piracy. The Radicals on the other hand want to commission a whole squadron of the submarines as part of a permanent, expanding Canadian Naval Service. The Treasury sometimes regarded as a bastion of neutrality balked at the expense of setting up an entire squadron but also argued strenuously against piracy on the pragmatic grounds that it would seriously harm commerce.

    The political arguement raged on into the new year and reached a peak in April 1882, when, after a blazing row with the Secretary for War (a Traditionalist) an embittered Holland left Canada vowing not to return. He would eventually, many years later, end up successfully selling improved versions of his designs to the Americans.

    The The Fenian Ram row accomplished very little, except to ensure that Canada would not in fact have a monopoly in submarines. Eventually the arguements wrapped up in the line up to the '83 election and the submarine was largely forgotten due to the impossibility of agreement. It would in fact be several more years before another attempt to float the idea of a Canadian Naval Service be made, and then a surface fleet, the submarines being a long forgotten fad.

    As for The Fenian Ram/RCS Granuaile she lay undisturbed in Halifax dock until 1887, when a group of students from Halifax University drrunk from celebrating St. Patrick's Day stole it as a half serious attept to go to war with the UK.

    Alas they forgot to seal the doors properly and less than half a mile out the sub foundered. The three students managed to swim to a nearby boat and were unharmed, but they could only watch as the first real submarine slipped gently below the waves forever.
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