The story narrated in this AAR is a collaborative effort coming from the Democratic BAR.
Everybody is welcome to participate in both.
The story narrated in this AAR is a collaborative effort coming from the Democratic BAR.
Everybody is welcome to participate in both.
Last edited by Fodoron; 15-11-2004 at 18:33.
First of January, 1419
My most respected Senators,
I write to your excellencies to report on the situation found on my new command of the venetian army with respect to the hostilities against Sigismund of Luxembourg, Holy Roman Emperor, king of Hungary and king of Bohemia.
Since I am not venetian myself, but udinese, and having incorporated to my command in your most generous terms recently, I have been informed about the liberation war we are conducting on the behalf of our friends and loyal subjects, the citizens of Dalmatia.
I am told that by virtue of the 100,000 Ducats paid in 1409 to the elected king of the Dalmatian cities, the angevin Ladislas of Naples, pretender to the hungarian throne, the Serenissima Republic of Venetia recovered the rights to Dalmatia, lost at the peace of Turin of 1380. But the treacherous Sigismund, often an ally of our enemies the genoese, did not recognized those rights, so Venetia had no choice but to conquest the cities of Zara, Nona and Sbenico. The truce signed between the Republic of Venice and Sigismund of Hungary in 1413 expired last year, leading to the present campaign.
On the subject of this my first report on the war for the liberation of Dalmatia, I am happy to already bring good news to your excellencies. The arrival of our army has been a motive for great celebration for the dalmatians. Trau had to be submitted, but Spalato and Cattaro opened their gates to our forces. I am happy to report that the whole province of Dalmatia is now under our control.
Your excellencies might rest assured that I will defend these conquests from Sigismunds armies, and you will soon see that the dalmatians will become once again your loyal subdits.
At your service,
Field Commander Tristan di Savorgnan.
Last edited by Fodoron; 17-12-2004 at 12:50.
Dear fellow Senators,
Members of the Serenissima Signioria,
We should finally stand up as the leaders of the Italian Free Cities. Let them know they can rely on us to times of need, to face the threat of the aristocratists Visconti of Milan.
We also have to stand up against all foreigners that would want to get a hold on our most culturate lands, be them Iberians, Hungarians or Heathens. Greek and italian lands are to be ruled by us if not by locals. Italian lands by us, as defenders of the idea of the Republic, whose modernity shines since over nineteen hundred years ; greek lands, because we're the last reliable part of the Eastern Roman Empire, which the Byzantines left in decay.
Our path is the mercantile one, we have to be the prime merchants and traders of the seas. If wars are needed, so be it, because trade, our trade, is the key to our survival.
Genoa delenda est.
I thank thy for your attention.
Title corrected per request.
More spam, you die! Horribly, horribly!
1418 state of the Repubblica address to the Consigglio Maggiore
With the end of the Christmas celebrations I'd like once more to address you over this past year events and achievements of our beloved Republic, and on future challenges that we have to face.
First I will review the war situation in Dalmatia and Istria. As explained by our Capitano Generale, Tristan di Savoragn, the situation in Dalmatia has turned very favorable, and now we control most of the cities there. We must fear a counterattack by Sigismunds armies, but our confidence in il Savoragno is complete. The situation in Istria has recently become more complicated. The noblemen of the city of Koper demand our protection from Sigismund's troops and the situation has been complicated since the Patriarch of Aquilea, Ludwig von Teck has sided with the hungarians and supports them from his istrian possessions and his fortress of Petrapilosa. I see this as an opportunity for Venice to seize the patriarchate possessions in Istria.
Now I'd like to warn you against the desires of some of the members in this illustrious chamber, leaded by respected senator Francesco Foscarini, that want a more direct implication of the Republic in the italian wars. Some of the senators want to raise a coalition of italians against Filippo Maria Visconti of Milano. Such a policy has deep implications that have to be carefully evaluated. Our Serenissima Repubblica depends on expensive mercenary armies, and the shifting loyalties and quick loses of independence of the small italian republics could leave us very exposed to our enemies. While I do agree that an opportunity to strike at our enemies, the genoese and milanese should be seek, we must not rely on weak, unreliable allies.
And finally I want to bring to your attention an inform by our Balio in Constantinople. The emperor Manuel II Palaelogus realizing that he cannot oppose the turks after his defeat at Nicopolis, and the siege of Constantinople by Bayazet, has decided to submit and accept vassalage also to Mehmet I. Our Balio speaks of the desperate situation of Manuel, who, you will remember, visited us a few years ago asking for help against the turks. Should Constantinople fall prey to the turks, that would be a catastrophe for us. The turks will greatly enforce their position, and moreover, the sizable navy of Byzantium would fall into their hands. That would make the victory of our Capitano Generale da mar, Pietro Loredan, over the ottoman navy at Gallipolli two years ago useless, and would greatly threaten our naval superiority over them.
Now, Manuel, as vassal to Mehmet and allied to his son Theodore II, Despot of Mystra (Morea), will not be permitted to accept any military aid from us. We could support them with money, as some of you have proposed, but if Manuel decides to break vassalage, he would be facing mortal danger without our help. I know some senators propose to follow the example of my illustrious predecessor, doge Enrico Dandolo, that brought so much wealth and territories to Venice with the help of the crusaders, and have proposed to bring Constantinople under our most benevolent rule to best defend her from the turks. In our claims over Mystra, we would be supported by our vassal and ally, Antonio, Duke of Athens, that wants to extend his dominions over Morea, and there is no doubt that Manuel Palaelogus would support his son.
Tommaso Mocenigo, LXIV doge of Venice. Dec. 1418.
Last edited by Fodoron; 17-12-2004 at 12:16.
While I too share the desire to crush the evil Visconti, and reclaim Mantua and the Emilia for our Republic, I also fear the onslaught of the infidel Turk.
If our trusted minister Fodoron believes the Byzantines can not hold while we dispatch the Visconti, I will yield to his wisdom. Once we have secured Constantinople, and our Allies have taken Morea, we should explore the feasibility of striking at Milan. I believe both conquests need to be completed in the near term, the order is unimportant. Once we have added these three wealthy provinces to the Republic, we can concentrate on economic development abd trade.
Furthermore, to fund our efforts, an improved tax infrastructure is needed. We must appoint tax collectors in all provinces immediately.
We should mint currency to fund these tax collectors and to fund these wars.
Senator Arturo Ernesto Gandolfi
Qui desiderat pacem, preparet bellum
My lord the Doge,
I'd like to speak of the difficult situation I am facing for my service to the Serenissima Repubblica. After taking command of the venetian forces I evaluated our situation. King Sigismond's armies had already been defeated on 20 engagements, and we had effective control of Dalmatia. Thinking that I was acting on the interest of Venetia, before engaging in further operations I sent message to king Sigismond that we would agree on ending the hostilities if he were to surrender Dalmatia and pay 50 ducats as war indemnities. He inmediately accepted.
Little I knew that this success was going to be used against me. I face accusations of inactivity and connivence with the enemy by members of the Senate. The same senators, I must say, that urged me to take only Dalmatia, since the hungarians were not our enemy, as they told me.
I knew that the nobles of Istria that favored the hungarians, and the Patriarch of Aquilea, that was striped of his Istrian possesions, would try to undermine me. But I am surprised that so many senators have taken their side. The same senators, I am sure, that would have complained if we had a long costly war, only to achieve similar results.
I request your support against such unjust criticism.
Capitano generale Tristan di Savoragn.
Last edited by Fodoron; 17-12-2004 at 12:49.
Dear Senators of the Serenissima Repubblica,
Appreciated Capitano generale Tristan di Savorgnan,
I would show all my gratitude as Venetian, as merchant, as Christian to our Capitano Generale for his decision to arrange a rapid and favourable peace with Sigismund. First of all, the peace has been concluded with gains of territory and gold, thus it's a dign victory. And, perhaps more important, the treaty avoids Christians to kill among themselves and permits to move our attention toward the most dangerous enemy: the Turks. On this matter, we would like to be constantly informed about their moves in the Balkans and East Mediterranean, which has been (and hopefully will be also in the future) the main focus of the interests of our mercantile class.
In any case, I personally support Tristan di Savorgnan against the envy and resentment of Senators probably jealous of his increasing popularity.
Visit the MAARquesate of Mantua! Faith in Power (WoW 30-3-2003)
From the Tower of Belem: A Portuguese AAR (WoW 7-11-2004)
Know my land's history with "The Apulian Persons Project" EU2 Victoria Crusader Kings (WoW 9-5-2010)
“Coelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt” - Horace
(His heaven above the traveller may change, but not the soul within)
Honored Members of the Serenissima Signoria,
Let us follow the advice of our most wise Doge, Tommaso Mocenigo, and prefer the peaceful way. In our most enlightenned world, a word is stronger than a sword, so let us appease our neighbours, to better lure them to our service later.
But let us not be blind : his Most Holy Pope is trying to bring the free cities of Italy under the dark yoke of obscurantism, along with those foreigners of Barcelona. Florence and Modena have been blinded, and we should make sure they don't succumb to the sirens of the aristocracy. If we make the choice of expansion now, this will only serve to bring them closer to Aragon and the Papacy, and this is to be avoided.
Honorable Capitano generale Tristan di Savoragn, don't be too eager to fight. Those who accuse you of of innactivity are simply amazed by your skills, and dream that you could have achieve much more. But gaining Dalmatia, which belongs to us de jure, will help us secure the seas leading to our beloved City.
Let us turn towards the oriental seas, to secure what can be secured. We should secure the Dardannelles ourselves, as the Paleologues Byzantines have already proven they are more keen on internal strife than on defense against heathens. We should help them, against their will if need be.
The old ways of the Byzantine Empire, made of aristocratic decay and tyrany, are obsolete in front of our most perfet ways of democracy and trade. We are the true heirs of the Roman Eastern Empire, as we alone are able to stand against barbaric invaders.
And as more pragmatic concern, ensuring our control on the naval seaways is critical to our goals of weakenning Genoa in the Black Sea and in Italy.
Genoa delenda est... but we have to be careful and patient.
Fellow Senators, I thank thee for your attention,
Senator Lawkeeper Dandolo
Inform from the Bailo of Euboea (Ionia) to the senate
Most noble senators,
With the death of Mehmet I, in 1421, his son Murad II has come to power. Our Bailo in Constantinople, Bertuccio Diedo, has updated the senate on the political strife between the Byzantine peace party, leaded by the emperor Manuel II, and the war party leaded by his oldest son John. Since Manuel is very old, and has relinquished power to his son, he advised him to appease Murad. John instead supported Murad's brother Mustafá, and entered a treaty with him.
After defeating his brother, Murad has ended the peace agreement and from June to September of 1421 set siege Constantinople for the second time. He had to lift the siege, but with his army, he then crushed the recently rebuilt wall of the Hexamilion (six miles) at the Isthmus of Corinth and devastated the Morea and Mytra in 1422. Then he turned north and has attacked Thessalonike in Macedonia. Andronikus Palaiologus, second son of Manuel and despot of Thessalonike cannot lift the blockade of the port, and from the walls of the city contemplates how the turkish armies ravage the countryside unimpeded. Constantinople is trying to reach a new vassalage agreement with Murad and cannot send forces to defend Thessalonike.
This year Andronikus has contacted me as the Bailo of Euboea (Ionia) and offered the city of Thessalonike on behalf of his people to the Serenissima Repubblica de Venetia. The thessalonicans already know what it is like to live under turkish rule, since the city was returned to byzantine rule in 1403 after 15 years of occupation. They were the first to experience the new turkish policy of devsirme, the obligatory levy of tribute-children extracted from christians. Andronikus, diseased with lepra, wishes to enter a monastic rule. Emperor Manuel, paralyzed and almost dead after a stroke on October of last year (1422), agrees to the sale of the city, since the empire can no longer defend it. The Archbishop of Thessalonike, Symeon, does not oppose as long as we agree to not send any latin priest and respect the clergy privileges.
Acceptance of the conditions for the purchase of Thessalonike would mean the start of hostilities with the Ottoman empire.
In real history, on the 13 of September, 1423 Venice occupies Thessalonike, initiating the first Turkish-Venetian war, that would end with the surrender of Thessalonike on 1430.
EDIT: Although this historic event is included in the AGCEEP game, we did not get it because the byzantines chose to execute Mustafá to please Murad. On May 1430 Thessalonike surrendered to Murad after a 3 day siege. It is said the thessalonicans were not too hapy with the venetian rule, since they did create troubles and did not solve any of the city problems. If the event had triggered, a temporary core should have been given to Venice on Macedonia between 1423 and 1430.
Last edited by Fodoron; 26-11-2004 at 21:29. Reason: To clarify it is not a game situation.
Is this a question to the Senate? Are we at war?
Qui desiderat pacem, preparet bellum
No, it is an account of what happened in real history, in the date we are in the game now. Its intention is to provide information to the senators about the international situation at the time.
I should have made it clearer, sorry.
Piero di Niccolo Lamberti son of Niccolo Lamberti, executed alone the Monument of Doge Mocenigo in 1423 at the Santi Giovanni e Paolo church in Venice. He adopted the florid style of current Venetian taste as seen in the fantastic, foliated two-tiered Gothic frame (similar to contemporary painting formats) and the unusually elaborate baldachin held back by two angels to reveal the reclining effigy of the Doge. The structure is crowned by Justice.
The last public words of Doge Tommaso mocenigo were:
"I counsel you to pray to the almighty power of God who has inspired us to make peace, as we have done, and to follow Him and render Him thanks. If you follow my advice, you will see that from now on we will be lords of all Christendom; the whole world will revere and fear you. Beware of the desire to take what belongs to others, and of making unjust war, for God will destroy you."
On the election of his successor he had to say:
"The said Francesco Foscari spreads rumours and many other matters without any basis, and stoops and climbs more than a falcon. If you make him doge, which God forbid, you will shortly be at war; and whoever has 10,000 ducats, will find himself with only 1000."
He would prove to be a prophet, when the Consigglio ignored his warnings and counsels.
I was named commissioner in the venetian army to act as representative of this most noble Consiglio. To be his eyes and to transmit his orders. Upon declaration of war, the army commanded by count Carmagnola, composed of 5000 cavalry and 4000 infantry, set course for Milan, while Tristan di Savorgnan, on command of 6000 infantry went to siege Mantua. Visconti was not ready for war, and the small milanese army defending Mantua was defeated by the combined action of our forces. Regretfully, capitano Savorgnan received a serious wound during battle and died the following day. Nevertheless his courage inspired his men, that conducted the siege with the bonus of a leader they no longer had.
At the walls of Milan, the main milanese army was waiting for us. Although smaller in numbers, the enemy army was formed by all the milanese cavalry, under the command of Niccolo Piccinino. The confrontation was terrible, and at the end it was the superior courage of our forces what won the day, completely defeating and exterminating our enemies.
(A) A siege force is sent to Mantua under Savorgnan, while the main army with the cavalry goes to Milan. (B) Both armies easily defeat the milanese defense army. (C) Carmagnola continues towards Milan after the victory, but Savorgnan dies the same day. (D) Carmagnola faces and defeats the milanese cavalry.
But when we thought that the milanese were completely defeated, Visconti was able to raise and equip another army of 12000 men in a month. We found them at a place called Maclodio. Count Carmagnola had hidden several carts with mounted crossbows in the back, and when the milanese charged in their impatience, the carts were opened and a swarm of arrows received the attackers. Their charge was stopped, and their initiative broken. Carmagnola ordered the cavalry to surround them, and they were forced to surrender, over 11000 of them.
To our surprise, Carmagnola ordered to disarm them and set them free. As your commissioner and in defense of your interests, I protested, but I was ignored. Carmagnola argued that it was a mercenary custom. In vain I treated to have him come to reason. As I was afraid, in a few days the milanese foundries and their huge weapons reserve, had the defeated army re-equipped. Instead of coming again to face Carmagnola, of whom they must have come to be afraid, they went to Veneto, pillaging the countryside and causing considerable damage, although they could not get the ships to siege the city of Venice, protected by the lagoon.
Despite this incident that made us very afraid for having such a big army behind our lines, the campaign proceeded successfully, and soon Mantua fell into our hands. After garrisoning it, both armies reunited in the siege of Milan, to be able to repel the milanese army if he decided to come our way.
(A) A huge fresh army is defeated by the forces at the siege of Mantua. (B) The enemy loots Veneto. Reinforcements to defend the siege of Mantua have to go through the Adriatic sea. (C) After the fall of Milan, the combined army goes to liberate the siege of Mantua. (D) This time the milanese forces are exterminated.
Finally Milan also fell, but Visconti had previously escaped to Emilia were he had yet another army waiting for us. Before going after Visconti, Carmagnola went to rescue Mantua, already at siege by the milanese. That was a glorious battle, and all 11000 men were made prisoners. Again ignoring my pleas, Carmagnola set them all free, but this time, seeing that Milan had been defeated and there will not be more pay coming from the duke Visconti, they faded into the countryside, disappearing.
While we were preparing to cross the river Po to face Visconti, Filippo Maria must have decided to invade the Romagna and attack our modenese allies. That turned out to be a mistake, because it allowed us to cross the river and take positions at Emilia, and when Visconti was defeated at Romagna, he had no place to retreat. The angry modenese came then to help us in the siege of Emilia. Soon Visconti was sending messengers to try to get favourable peace terms. But following your instructions, I forced Carmagnola to continue the siege, until Visconti surrendered unconditionally.
(A) While Carmagnola crosses the Po, the milanese attack Romagna. (B) The defeated milanese forces were easily exterminated. (C) After the fall of Milan, we started to get some serious offers. (D) Once Emilia fell, Visconti was willing to give everything, but we wanted more. (E) Milan was forced to pay 50 ducats, surrender Mantua and become vassals of Venice.
Your ambassador came with our conditions for ending hostilities. Brescia, and Bergamo (EU2 Mantua province) will become our possession, and Filippo Maria Visconti will accept that Milan becomes a vassal of Venice, and pays half of their taxes to us. 50 gold ducats will be paid to us in concept of war indemnities. Such harsh conditions (90% warscore) were accepted by the defeated Visconti. He was then forced to abandon his alliance with the german states and to break the marriage of her daughter to Amadeo VIII of Savoy.
The war has been favorable to the Serenissima Repubblica. Our initial army of 15,000 men was reinforced with 3,000 more. At the end of the war, our casualties amounted to about 4,000 men. The milanese army, formed by 9,000 men initially, was reinforced by 19,000 more men. They were all killed, taken prisoners or disbanded, so their loses were seven times ours.
This map shows the territorial gains achieved by Venice over Milan in the 1428 peace treaty, mainly the areas and cities of Brescia and Bergamo. Italy is now split into two main alliances, our alliance to Modena, and Ferrara (EU2 Modena), Athens and the vassalage and soon alliance of Milan to us on one side, and on the other side Papal States, and Tuscany with Aragon. Genoa remains a vassal of Milan, and Naples doesn't seem is going to stick around for long.
Despite the success achieved in the war, I would like to request that just punishment is imposed upon count Carmagnola, whose behavior after the battle of Maclodio has caused so much suffering in our beloved Repubblica. I must add that Carmagnola appears to pursue his own benefit and tries to drag the wars avoiding pressing when we gain the advantage. It is my opinion that he wants to maintain us in a state of constant war, so his services are always needed and rewarded.
Always at your service,
Last edited by Fodoron; 17-12-2004 at 12:22.
The battle of Maclodio.
After the fall of Brescia in the hands of Venice in 1426, Milan and Venice were unable to sign a peace treaty and hostilities continued. On the 12th of October 1427 at Maclodio, the Venetian mercenary army, formed by a coalition of Venice, Ferrara, Mantua, Monferrato and Savoy was directed by Gianfrancesco Gonzaga and Niccolo da Tolentino under the general command of Carmagnola. It amounted to 18,000 cavalry and 8,000 infantry. The milanese mercenary army was formed by 12,000 cavalry and 6,000 infantry under the direction of Francesco Sforza, Niccolo Piccinino, Agnolo della Pergola and Guido Torello under general command of Carlo Malatesta. Almost all the military talent in Italy at that time was present in the battle. As it happened at the siege of Brescia, Carmagnola won the day. Reputedly he hide crossbowmen in carts and swarmed the milanese charging army with arrows, using the surprise to his advantage. After the battle, over ten thousand milanese mercenaries were made prisoners, while the rest succeeded in crossing the river Oglio, where inexplicably Carmagnola refused to pursue them and destroy them. Furthermore, Carmagnola released most of the prisoners after the battle. Obviously the venetians were not pleased with his conduct.
Several reasons have been given for Carmagnola's conduct after the battle. Some say that the other members of the league only wanted to check Visconti's rapid expansion, but were equally alarmed by the agressive policy of Venice. After the battle, the allies would have firmly opposed pressing the advantage the venetians were getting. Others blame the inactivity of Carmagnola on the treason suffered at the onset of the battle, when the Savoyans changed sides thinking that the milanese were going to win. Although this defection did not change the result of the battle, it was rewarded by Visconti by giving his daughter in marriage to Amadeo VIII of Savoy, with a dowry in territory, Vercelli and Biella. But the most popular explanation is that Carmagnola was pursuing his own interests. He did not want to defeat his former patron severely because it would had two negative effects, on one side eliminating a possible future employer and on the other side it would have made him less necessary to his venetian employers. Those were the dangers of employing the mercenary condottieri.
Those that like literature in addition to history, would find pleasure in my finding of a partial translation by William Dean Howells from "Il Conte Carmagnola" by Alessandro Manzoni. A theatrical tragedy whose inclusion here makes it worth every ducat we spent on this condottiero.
I have ruthlessly edited (cut) the small parts that Howells wrote in his book on modern italian poets to make it adequate for a post. You are welcome to read the rest if you are not satisfied with this brief exposure here, or even better learn italian and find the complete book. Careful, it is a spoiler for Carmagnola's story. There will be one more post about this play in the future.
"In the Carmagnola, the action extends from the moment when the Venetian Senate, at war with the Duke of Milan, places its armies under the command of the count, who is a soldier of fortune and has formerly been in the service of the Duke. The Senate sends two commissioners into his camp to represent the state there, and to be spies upon his conduct. This was a somewhat clumsy contrivance of the Republic to give a patriotic character to its armies, which were often recruited from mercenaries and generaled by them; and, of course, the hireling leaders must always have chafed under the surveillance. After the battle of Maclodio, in which the Venetian mercenaries defeated the Milanese, the victors, according to the custom of their trade, began to free their comrades of the other side whom they had taken prisoners."
On the right hand a trumpet is sounding,
On the left hand a trumpet replying,
The field upon all sides resounding
With the trampling of foot and of horse.
Yonder flashes a flag; yonder flying
Through the still air a bannerol glances;
Here a squadron embattled advances,
There another that threatens its course.
The space 'twixt the foes now beneath them
Is hid, and on swords the sword ringeth;
In the hearts of each other they sheathe them;
Blood runs, they redouble their blows.
Who are these? To our fair fields what bringeth
To make war upon us, this stranger?
Which is he that hath sworn to avenge her,
The land of his birth, on her foes?
They are all of one land and one nation,
One speech; and the foreigner names them
All brothers, of one generation;
In each visage their kindred is seen;
This land is the mother that claims them,
This land that their life blood is steeping,
That God, from all other lands keeping,
Set the seas and the mountains between.
Ah, which drew the first blade among them
To strike at the heart of his brother?
What wrong, or what insult hath stung them
To wipe out what stain, or to die?
They know not; to slay one another
They come in a cause none hath told them;
A chief that was purchased hath sold them;
They combat for him, nor ask why.
Oh, disaster, disaster, disaster!
With the slain the earth's hidden already;
With blood reeks the whole plain, and vaster
And fiercer the strife than before!
But along the ranks, rent and unsteady,
Many waver--they yield, they are flying!
With the last hope of victory dying
The love of life rises again.
At the feet of the foe they fall trembling,
And yield life and sword to his keeping;
In the shouts of the victors assembling,
The moans of the dying are drowned.
All around I hear cries of rejoicing;
The temples are decked; the song swelleth
From the hearts of the fratricides, voicing
Praise and thanks that are hateful to God.
"At the tent of the great condottiere. Count Carmagnola is speaking with one of the Commissioners of the Venetian Republic, when the other suddenly enters:"
Comm. 1: My lord, if instantly you haste not to prevent it, treachery shameless and bold will be accomplished, making our victory vain, as't partly hath already.
Count: How now?
Comm. 1: The prisoners leave the camp in troops! The leaders and the soldiers vie together to set them free; and nothing can restrain them saving command of yours.
Count: Command of mine?
Comm. 1: You hesitate to give it?
Count: 'T is a use, this, of the war, you know. It is so sweet to pardon when we conquer; and their hate is quickly turned to friendship in the hearts that throb beneath the steel. Ah, do not seek to take this noble privilege from those who risked their lives for your sake, and to-day are generous because valiant yesterday.
Comm. 1: Let him be generous who fights for himself, my lord! But these--and it rests upon their honor-- Have fought at our expense, and unto us belong the prisoners.
Count: You may well think so, doubtless, but those who met them front to front, who felt their blows, and fought so hard to lay their bleeding hands upon them, they will not so easily believe it.
Comm. 1: And is this a joust for pleasure then? And doth not Venice conquer to keep? And shall her victory be all in vain?
Count: Already I have heard it, and I must hear that word again? 'Tis bitter; importunate it comes upon me, like an insect that, driven once away, returns to buzz about my face.... The victory is in vain! The field is heaped with corpses; scattered wide, and broken, are the rest--a most flourishing army, with which, if it were still united, and it were mine, mine truly, I'd engage to overrun all Italy! Every design of the enemy baffled; even the hope of harm taken away from him; and from my hand hardly escaped, and glad of their escape, four captains against whom but yesterday it were a boast to show resistance; vanished half of the dread of those great names; in us doubled the daring that the foe has lost; the whole choice of the war now in our hands; and ours the lands they've left--is't nothing?
Think you that they will go back to the Duke, those prisoners; and that they love "him", or care more for "him" than "you"? that they have fought in "his" behalf? Nay, they have combatted because a sovereign voice within the heart of men that follow any banner cries, "Combat and conquer!" they have lost and so are set at liberty; they'll sell themselves-- O, such is now the soldier!--to the first that seeks to buy them--Buy them; they are yours!
Comm. 1: When we paid those that were to fight with them, we then believed ourselves to have purchased them.
Comm. 2: My lord, Venice confides in you; in you She sees a son; and all that to her good and to her glory can redound, expects shall be done by you.
Count: Everything I can.
Comm. 2: And what can you not do upon this field?
Count: The thing you ask. An ancient use, a use dear to the soldier, I can not violate.
Comm. 2: You, whom no one resists, on whom so promptly every will follows, so that none can say, whether for love or fear it yield itself; you, in this camp, you are not able, you, to make a law, and to enforce it?
Count: I said I could not; now I rather say, I "will" not! No further words; with friends this hath been ever my ancient custom; satisfy at once and gladly all just prayers, and for all other refuse them openly and promptly. Soldier!
Comm. 1: Nay--what is your purpose?
Count: You will see anon.
[To a soldier who enters] How many prisoners still remain?
Soldier: I think, my lord, four hundred.
Count: Call them hither--call the bravest of them--those you meet the first; send them here quickly. [Exit soldier]
[The prisoners enter]
Count: Who was it, that made you prisoners?
Prisoner: We were the last to give our arms up. All the rest were taken or put to flight, and for a few brief moments the evil fortune of the battle weighed on us alone. At last you made a sign that we should draw nigh to your banner,--we alone not conquered, relics of the lost.
Count: You are those? I am very glad, my friends, to see you again, and I can testify that you fought bravely; and if so much valor were not betrayed, and if a captain equal unto yourselves had led you, it had been no pleasant thing to stand before you.
Prisoner: And now shall it be our misfortune to have yielded only to you, my lord? And they that found a conqueror less glorious, shall they find more courtesy in him? In vain, we asked our freedom of your soldiers--no one durst dispose of us without your own assent, but all did promise it. "O, if you can, show yourselves to the Count," they said. "Be sure, he'll not embitter fortune to the vanquished; An ancient courtesy of war will never be ta'en away by him; he would have been rather the first to have invented it."
Count: [To the Commissioners] You hear them, lords? Well, then, what do you say? What would you do, you?
[To the prisoners] Heaven forbid that any should think more highly than myself of me! You are all free, my friends; farewell! Go, follow your fortune, and if e'er again it lead you under a banner that's adverse to mine, why, we shall see each other.
[To the Commissioners] I never will be merciful to your foes till I have conquered them.
To the excellent senators of Serenissima Repubblica of Venice.
Our forces arrived to Constantinople when the turks were attacking the city walls. I had an interview with the Basileus Ioannes VIII Palaeologus. He is a man of weak character and not too smart. It was not difficult to convince him that Venice had sent her best Capitano to help defend the imperial city as his father had previously requested the Consiglio. It would appear that the byzantines do not learn much from history. The fleet was allowed entrance to the port, and the port gates were opened for our troops.
(A) In October 1427 and with our forces arriving, troop maintenance is increased and war declared on Morea. Morean forces invade Hellas where our cavalry supports the much smaller athenian army. (B) Carmagnola disembarks, while the fleet starts the blockade. (C) Carmagnola takes command of the siege.
The citizens received Carmagnola as their liberator. A few days later, and once Carmagnola had his troops in strategic positions, the palace was assaulted and Ioannes made prisoner. Soon all the city was under our control.
(A) On May 1428, Constantinople is captured, (B) and incorporated to our Repubblica. (C) The permission for immigration given to the byzantines by our authorities, causes a massive arrival of immigrants to Crete. (D) This creates some problems with the local population. (E) That are harshly resolved with minimal loses.
Carmagnola addressed the population and convinced them that only a power like Venice could defend them against the turkish onslaught, while promising that no pillage would take place, and guaranteeing their lives and possessions. I spoke to the nobility, promising enough privileges to gain their support. Ioannes was deposed. An embassy formed by me and count Carmagnola convinced the Black Sheep turks to renounce to Constantinople under threat of war against Venice and her allies. Seen the defenders reinforced, while they were exhausted and out of supplies also helped convince them.
The first battle of Athens (1427). (A) The first morean army, twice bigger than our forces, lacks sufficient cavalry, (B) and is soundly defeated. (C) Our cavalry decides to wait and hold the plains, but the athenians boldly go, (D) to fight, (E) and are almost exterminated. That'll teach them some caution.
The coup of Constantinople triggered hostilities from the despot of Mystra, Theodore II Palaeologus, brother of the Basileus Ioannes. There our cavalry regiment from Negroponte distinguished against the other byzantines.
The second battle of Athens (1428). (A) A new attack by a strong morean army. (B) Again our cavalry is crucial for our victory.
After the cavalry of Negroponte had repelled the despot's armies twice, Carmagnola went to Athens with some infantry, taking command of the Negroponte regiment.
The battle of Mystra (1428). (A) On September, with the arrival of Carmagnola and some reinforcements, the army of Negroponte crosses the Hexamilion. (B) After the battle of Mystra, Morea will be defenseless, but it will take the athenian army one year to gather enough confidence to start the siege of Mystra.
Carmagnola took care of the already defeated morean forces, but then, inexplicably, refused to take Mystra, and went instead to winter quarters, in Greece!! His indecisiveness delayed the end of the war for over a year, and in the end forced our atheniense allies to do the job, despite being ill prepared and undermanned.
April 1430. Morea is finally annexed by Athens (independent peace). We accept an offer from Cyprus of 79D., half of which go to Modena. Athens and Cyprus do not reach an agreement and remain at war.
Morea was subdued and incorporated to the Duchy of Athens, subject to vassalage to us. The Palaeologus family will be exiled to Trebizond, where they have family ties.
I hope that with my actions I have merited the approval from the Consiglio, since I would look favorably for a responsibility post in Thrace. I'd like to remark that loss of lives to our party was very reduced, in part thanks to my actions.
I'd like to finally add a complaint against count Carmagnola. Although his military performance is impecable when he enters into action, I have to denounce that he has a tendency to sit and do nothing unless forced by circumstances. The morean campaign lasted for too long due to his refusal to continue the offensive when he took command over the Negroponte army.
Balio at Constantinople. April 1430
Last edited by Fodoron; 17-12-2004 at 12:20.
I bring you grim news indeed regarding our ambassador at Bursa.
The recent conquest of Constantinople has brought a fall with Murad II, sultan of the Ottomans. He considers that Constantinople was his personal possession. Our relationships already strained by the Thessalonike issue are at an all time low. Regretfully, Murad actions are not very civilized. Already I had problems with his father Mehmed when I was the venetian bailo in Constantinople in 1414, and I was asked to sign a treaty to put an end to the turkish attacks on our merchant ships and their raids on our colonies. After expending the best part of the summer to finally reach an agreement, I returned to Venice, only to see that the attacks continued and that a new raid in Negroponte (Eubea, EU2 Ionia), demonstrated the value given by the turks to their treaties.
But I turned out to be lucky, because ambassador Nicolo Zorzi, and ducal notary and ambassador Giovanni de Bonisio, sent to Murad in 1424 and 1426 respectively, to negotiate a peace proposal regarding Thessalonike, were arrested and imprisoned, and their liberation was difficult and costly. What has happened now is even worse. Murad is so angry about our conquest of Constantinople that in March 1429, our ambassador Giacomo Dandolo, capitano di Salonicco and cousin of senator Lawkeeper Dandolo, sent to negotiate peace, was put under arrest by Murad II and has died in prison in unclear circumstances (*).
Under the circumstances, we are unable to find a substitute. I am therefore asking for a volunteer within this consiglio to act as our ambassador in Bursa, at the court of the sultan. Since the rise of the Ottoman empire is such a menace to us, he will have to keep his eyes open and inform us of anything of interest that happens there, mainly events choices and historic information of interest. Already a couple of things have happened there, like the absorption of Haydin and the institution of some Sheikhul-islam office that we don't understand, and Murad has already inherited Germiyan, 3 times!!. Also we don't know much about this Murad sultan. Any volunteer must know that his life will be at risk, and that he doesn't have to send informs periodically, but only when circumstances allow.
Another such empty post, although a much safer one is the ambassador to the Pope, wether he is in Rome or Avignon. The sudden increase in the size of the Papal States is a threat that we should be able to neutralize, and information can be crucial. Ambassadors to other countries are also welcomed.
Francesco Foscari, LXV doge of Venice. Dec. 1430.
(*) All this is historical, except poor Giacomo being lawkeeper's cousin .
Last edited by Fodoron; 17-12-2004 at 12:06.
The Trial of Carmagnola
The successful campaigns of Philippo Maria Visconti of Milan had Venice worried. Florence was being defeated battle after battle, Zagonara, Val di Lamone, Rapallo, Anghiari. Doge Foscari wanted the war, but the council was doubtful because they feared an alliance between Visconti and Sigismund of Hungary. Finally the desperate Florentines sent Venice a plead that was also a threat: "When we refused to help Genoa, she made Visconti her Lord. If you refuse to help us, we will make him King." This threat, plus the defection of count Carmagnola, who claimed that he could defeat Visconti's armies, turned the scale to the doge's position. The Florentine League was concluded and Carmagnola was made "Capitano Generale della genti di terra" of Venetian forces.
The first campaign ended in the acquisition of Brescia and the Bresciano by Venetian troops, but not by Carmagnola. He had no sooner brought his forces under Brescia than he asked leave to retire for his health to the Baths of Abano; and his conduct from the very first roused suspicions. The second campaign gave Bergamo to the victorious Republic. But the suspicions of Venice were increased by finding that the Duke of Milan was in communication with Carmagnola and was prepared to conclude a peace through him as intermediary, suspicions confirmed by the dilatory conduct of their general after the victory at Maclodio (1427), when nothing lay between him and Milan. At the opening of the third campaign against Visconti, the Republic endeavoured to rouse their general to vigorous action by raising his emoluments and promising him immense fiefs including the lordship of Milan, if he would only crush the Duke and take his capital. But it was to the interest of Carmagnola, as indeed to all other soldiers of fortune, to make the operations last as long as possible, to avoid decisive operations, and to liberate all prisoners quickly. At the same time Carmagnola was perpetually receiving messengers from Visconti, who offered him great rewards if he would abandon the Venetians. The general trifled with his past as with his present employers, believing in his foolish vanity that he held the fate of both in his hand. But the Venetians were dangerous masters to trifle with, and when they at last lost all patience, the Council of Ten determined to bring him to justice. Summoned to Venice to discuss future operations on the 29th of March 1432, he came without suspicion. He was received with marked honour. His suite was told that the general stayed to dine with the Doge and that they might go home. The Doge sent to excuse himself from receiving the Count on the score of indisposition. Carmagnola turned to go down to his gondola. In the lower arcade of the palace he was arrested and hurried to prison. He was brought to trial for treason against the republic.
This is a transcription of the trial that took place in the Democratic AAR (see previous post). It includes edited posts from the following forum members:
Cast by order of appearance:
[lawkeeper]: Senator Dandolo, acting as il rosso (red) inquisitore from the Dogal Council.
[Fodoron]: Senator Jacopo Loredano, in charge of the accusation
[Carmagnola]: Senator Gabriele Mocenigo, acting as il nero (black) inquisitore from the Council of Ten.
[Fodoron]: Capitano General Fodoroni
[Norrefeldt]: Senator Barbarigo, from the Council of Ten.
[Fodoron]: Doge Francesco Foscari
[carlec]: Senator Carlo Cornaro, from the Council of Ten.
[Daniel A]: Senator Daniel A, from the Council of Ten.
[Fodoron]: Minister of Economy
[aegandolfi]: Senator Arturo Gandolfi, acting as il nero (black) inquisitore from the Council of Ten.
Setting: In the Inquisitorial hall at the dogal palace in the piazza St. Marks of Venice. The "Supremo Terribile Tribunale" is composed by three Inquisitors. Their goal is to assure the security of the State, and their power is above the doge or any other person in the republic. Chosen between the Dogal Councillors, senator Dandolo is "il rosso", the first inquisitor dressed in red. Sitting at both sides of "il rosso", chosen from the Council of Ten, and dressed in black, are "il neri", senators Mocenigo, and Gandolfi. In front of the tribunal sits the accused, count Carmagnola, the witnesses, the accusation, the defender and the members of the Quarantia, forty senators.
Dandolo: Citizens of the Serennissima Repubblica,
As Primo Inquisitor, Il Rosso, I formally declare this sitting of the Supremo Terribile Tribunale open. I will be assisted by Il Neri Inquisitori Mocenigo and Gandolfi, and we will jointly preside the Quarantia. The first step will consist on the denouncement by senator Jacopo Loredano.
Loredano: I denounce Francesco Bussone, count of Carmagnola on charges of treason during war, and conspiracy with the enemies of the republic. I denounce doge Francesco Foscari on charges of abuse of authority, usurpation of council powers and misuse of public funds.
May 1432. Carmagnola's trial.
Option A Execute Carmagnola: +30 ducats, Land -1, Quality -1
Option B Release Carmagnola: Land -1, Quality -1
Option C Retain Carmagnola: -100 ducats, Stability -1, Monarch DIP -3 for 12 months, Trigger Carmagnola's acquitted event.
Dandolo: We hear the denouncement. Lets now hear the testimonies exposed to this court. Commissioner to the armies Enrico Donato and Balio at Constantinople Marino Zen are not present in Venice, but we have already read their letters (see posts above). Other witnesses and interested parties please speak.
Mocenigo: Most Serene Doge, Noble Senators,
While the senators talked, the enemy has stricken. Nay, look not east at the Turks. The worst enemy is within our walls. A conspiracy threatens the very foundation of this Republic. Men of power and influence, meeting in dark chambers, commanding the blind loyalty of our armies and provincial officials, would take from this assembly all its powers. Powers that our fathers saw fit to divide among many, to protect our freedom.
They will have us believe that we are in danger; that decisions must be made swiftly, that action cannot wait for the deliberation of the Senate. Before long, this august body will only be asked to simply approve decisions made elsewhere. Already, we are presented with a fait accompli, the war against the Visconti, are we not?
And we are supposed to be pleased, since it went so well, looking the other way as war and peace were made without even one senator knowing. It was a unique opportunity, we are told; our armies had to strike in secret, to achieve surprise; this decision was already implied by our previous choices. On and on, there are many such reasons.
And now, these conspirators try to cloud our judgment with rumors of Carmagnola’s treason, so that we may be led to blame him for this hasty enterprise. But this Senate is not made up of fools!
No, I shall not declare myself pleased with this war, however well our Captain General Fodoroni seems to think it went. The timing was exceedingly wrong, as events are proving. What is a small land gain in the west, when the Turks threaten our very existence in the east? What is the humiliation of Milan, when those lands, left without allies or protection, are now to fall into greedy, foreign hands, so that we may have to face a stronger enemy than Milan would ever have been? What shall happen, now that the despicable Tyrolese have taken advantage of Milan’s weakness?
Do you not see the wisdom of Carmagnola, who did not want to weaken that power beyond our interest? Is it treason to consider all the consequences of rash actions? Perhaps he showed his faith more to us, the Senators of the Republic, than to the Doge and that is why we now hear such baseless accusations from this Enrico Donato, whose affiliations we know very well.
Beware of the Doge, noble senators, not Carmagnola, if you must beware of a man! I formally propose that doge Foscari be censored for his lack of respect to the principles of the Republic, and this investigation should ascertain whether his actions proceed from darker counsels, rather than a mere inadvertence.
Yet, in our present plight, we must not be divided within ourselves, nor can we afford to lose the services of the Captain General Carmagnola. Indeed, he must be commended at least for one of his actions: his rescue of Constantinople from the Turks, knowing the opinion of many among us. If today we can protect our byzantine friends from the black hearts of those Turks instead of praying for their souls is because of this man alone.
Fodoroni: Supreme Tribunal, serene Doge, noble senators,
As chief commander of the venetian armies, I find suspicious how long it took the campaign against Milan. We were far superior, yet the war lasted for over two years, but even worse, count Carmagnola received several personal envoys from Visconti, and we have witness accounts on generous offers from Visconti to stop or at least delay the war. Then we have the issue of the war against the Despot of Morea. That war lasted two and a half years. Against a tiny enemy that could easily be defeated in less than six months. We must add the dishonor to us that our ally, the duke of Athens had to conquer Mystra with inferior forces to ours, because Carmagnola refused to do it himself.
Carmagnola is gifted and dangerous. He has tried to manipulate his employers, both us and the Visconti. Only the vigilance of our spies in his court made us see clear what a wolf he is. We cannot afford to risk having him slip a knife in our back or his hands deeper into our coffers. He's a condottieri, in the future, he could join the enemies of our Republic.
Foscari: Supreme Tribunal, senators,
Visconti is now dead, and we mock him, yet we must not forget that Carmagnola came to us in times of need. Visconti was then unstoppable, ransacking Tuscany, subduing Genoa. Soon it was going to be our turn. Yet this man offered his help. And his help we accepted. Some will say we paid for his victories, and to that I will answer that we paid only for his fights. Some will say he could have done more, and to that I will answer that he could have achieved a lot less. I myself have doubts about him. But I also have doubts about myself and about these noble senators. Visconti was a twisted man and Carmagnola's family lived in his dominions. Perhaps Carmagnola did everything he could to help us or perhaps not. But for the help that indeed he delivered I will plead that this tribunal releases Carmagnola on his word that he will retire forever from active duty.
Mocenigo: Most Serene Doge, Noble Senators,
I speak before you today to offer you a choice. Whether you want to be proud of the Republic, defend its freedoms against creeping tyranny, and keep her armies strong and ready to face our present dangers. Or walk in shame, knowing you have sold your honor for the protection of powerful and shady men, while leaving the gates wide open to our enemies in the east and north.
I have been appointed to speak on Count Carmagnola's defense. In fact, I can hardly descry what he should defend himself from, so shady and incongruous the accusations are. What is clear to everyone, instead, is that all the accusations against count Carmagnola can one way or the other be traced back to the Doge and his acolytes. And it is patent that he has raised this commotion only to distract us from his disastrous handling of our western policy.
What is exactly the damage that this valiant condottiero has caused to our Republic, I ask. Can anyone point to anything detrimental that proceeded from his actions? Indeed, this session would scarcely be sufficient to enumerate the services he has rendered to us, to the Republic. As senator Barbarigo asked, is this the way Venice treats her truthful servants?
He stands accused of putting honor above mean-spirited counsels in the war against Milan, for having released brave prisoners. What was the alternative? Do these senators want to be known as the proud heirs of the Roman Senate, or as a band of shameless ruffians, ready to trample their principles for the slightest advantage?
Advantage that is for no one to be seen, in any case. Are the banners of Friedrich of Tyrol flying over Milan not enough a demonstration that the Visconti were not to be left totally destitute of military might?
He stands accused of unnecessary delays during the Greek campaign. It would be ludicrous, if it weren't tragic. The most brilliant military strategist and tactician in Europe is accused of incompetence by this Marino Zen, someone who has never been within 10 leagues of a battlefield, and whose sole skill is adulation of our Captain General Fodoroni. Please, my fellow senators, do not refrain from a loud laughter; it is much needed.
I call for the immediate acquittal of count Carmagnola, and I propose a generous compensation be offered to him (100 d, only 3 months’ revenue), in the hopes that it might persuade him to forget this humiliating incident and he might remain in our service. While this may cause displeasure to those that are weaving dark webs behind our backs (stab –1), the cost of raising the quality of our troops to the same standards of excellence would be just as great. And with the upcoming struggle in the east, we cannot afford at the moment to forsake our armies and concentrate on the navy.
Cornaro: It is still with a heavy heart that I think of how family matters pressed me to missing this critical decision the first time. We clearly saw how his actions almost cost us a crucial gain in the war in the Balkans. He must be made an example of!
Daniel A: Regarding the accusations of public funds misuse by the Doge, it is the talk of the marketplace. Even my family's merchants complain that their profit doesn't even cover the expenses. The city loses money on this and yet we lose huge shares of markets in foreign places. Perhaps even 30%. Is the Doge responsible for this?
Minister of Economy: Noble senators,
A question has been raised about the wiseness of expending funds from our treasury to pay the travel and installation costs for our merchants. To help clarify this issue that certainly is a little bit over the head of our current doge, I have been asked to give you the following report:
It has been extensively said that once one reaches level 3, it is the time to start trading. That usually happens around 1500-1540 for most human countries. Our Republic has already a trade efficiency over level 3, currently at 54%. We are the most advanced traders in the world. However, two factors from this early age should also be taken into consideration. One is that the high number of nations provide for a fiercer, more competitive environment, and the other is that being our economy smaller, merchant costs represent a comparatively higher part of our income. We do not raise enough money from census taxes to pay for the cost of sending all the merchants available to us, and that is even if we do not have other expenses to cover, like armies, promotions or gifts.
In 1419 we started with 14 merchants. We made an expense of 246D in merchants for the period 1419-1425, sending 31 merchants and placing 22. In that period 7 merchants were lost, bringing the final number to 29. We increased our trade revenue for the period in an estimate 182D with respect to not sending merchants. But the surviving merchants will continue making a revenue in future periods at a rate of about 4D/year each. We can estimate that using the 1425-1431 period when merchant loses were higher and very little placement was done. That comes out at 324D, only for the merchants placed between 1419 and 1425, with an estimate of 9 merchants from the 22 we placed in that period still making money in 1431, versus only 6 from the original 14. In the end we will probably be making 2D in research for every 1D spent in merchants.
This letterbox in the wall of the ducal palace is for secret denounces. On the other side it has three locks to ensure the secrecy as it can be open only by the three inquisitors.
Dandolo: We have heard the testimonies and the accusation and defense pleads. It is time to vote on the culpability and on the penalty requested by the advocates of the Commune before we reach a verdict and dictate the sentence. I will remind to all the accusations.
Doge Francesco Foscari is accused of abuse of authority for declaring war to Milan, usurpation of council powers in dictating the foreign policies of the Republic, and misuse of public funds in his trade strategies. If found guilty the punishment can go from being reprimanded to being asked to resign.
Count Carmagnola is accused of treason for corresponding with the Republic enemies and acting in war against the interests of the Republic. If found guilty the penalty can only be of death. If found innocent we must decide if we retain his services or we dismiss him.
The judgement of the Supremo Terribile Tribunale
Hear ye the pronouncement of Gabriele Mocenigo, Il Nero Inquisitore
Preamble: While the prosperous exercise of the of the business of government requires that internal divisions be kept to a minimum, all senators of the ancient city of Rome remained ever watchful against one man acquiring too much influence and power, lest their republican government be turned into a monarchic rule. History teaches that when that watchfulness gave way to complacency and the sole pursuit of riches in that glorious city, tyrants rose in might amidst much blood. If we are not to let that happen to our own Republic we must tolerate civil discord to avoid civil war.
After gathering proofs and hearing testimonies, we cannot ignore that dangerous and despotic tendencies have demonstrated themselves in our civil and military administrators. Yet, because of the senators' watchfulness they have not had the opportunity to grow into more serious threats. Therefore:
In the name of St. Mark,
Judgement: I find Doge Francesco Foscari guilty of overextending his authority in declaring war without the consent of Senate. On the counts of usurpation of senatorial powers, and of misuse of public funds to suport trading policies, no sufficient evidence could be found to my satisfaction.
Though the penalty is to be decided solely by il Rosso Inquisitore, I ask that the Doge be reprimanded for his conduct and that, as a retribution for endangering our Republic, his estates west of Padua be confiscated.
I find count Carmagnola innocent of all charges, and ask the Senate that he be acquitted and a 100 D compensation be paid to him for the slander on his person, so that we may retain his services.
Il Nero of the Supremo Terribile Tribunale has spoken.
The judgement of the Supremo Terribile Tribunale
Hear ye the pronouncement of Arturo Ernesto Gandolfi, Il Nero Inquisitore
We are all committed to the principles of the Republic, and none of us wants to see and undue concentration of power. However, there will be times when the Doge must act decisively to safeguard the Republic. If the Doge has no latitude, why have a Doge in the first place. The war against Milan had a just casus belli, and our claim on Mantua was internationally recognized. Furthermore, the Senate had indicated a desire to seek war with Milan. Therefore,
In the name of St. Mark,
Judgement: I find Doge Francesco Foscari innocent of all charges against him.
In the conduct of the Milanese war, and the subsequent liberation of Constantinople, our general Carmagnola acted against the interests of our Republic, and corresponded with our enemies.
Judgement: I find Count Carmagnola guilty.
May God have mercy on his soul.
Il Nero of the Supremo Terribile Tribunale has spoken.
The judgement of the Supremo Terribile Tribunale
Hear ye the final judgement of the Supremo Terribile Tribunale by Lawkeeper Dandolo, Il Rosso Inquisitore
Citizens of the Serenissima Repubblica, hear the final judgement of the Terribile Supremo Tribunale,
On the charge of high treason sustained against Count Carmagnola, former general of the Repubblica, the Supremo Terribile Tribunale,
Considering that witnesses, not one but several, each of them as trustful as can be, have testimonied that the extended duration of the wars, not only against Visconti's Milanese state, but also against the so-called Byzantine Empire, was the result of the direct orders of the fore-mentionned Count Carmagnola,
Considering that such a behaviour of freeing the prisoners without any guarantee, is a behaviour of the past ; that the Repubblica has turned itself to the future, and does not take delight in obsolete ways ; that the said released prisoners immediately took back the arms against us, persevering in the service of tyranny ; that such an act was helping the Repubblica's enemy, late Visconti of Milano, to whom the accused person was previously personnally engaged as land-holder ; that late Visconti did not deprive fore-mentionned Count Carmagnola from his lands and titles,
Considering that the war against the greek despots of Morea could have been ended half-a-year earlier than it did ; that during all this time, the fore-mentionned Count Carmagnola took his quarters far from the field of battle ; that such an act, meaning stepping away from an undersized enemy, is both an act of cowardice and a proof of tactical ineptness,
Considering that the Serenissima Repubblica's soldiers should show loyalty to the Repubblica, bravery in the face of danger and outstanding tactical skills ; that such loyalty, bravery and skills should be raised and supported by the example given by their officers ; that the accused person was found lacking in all three,
Considering that the inner feeling of the majority of the Magistrates is that the accused person was faulty in his duties,
Considering that the only penalty for this most heinous crime of high treason against the interests of the Serenissima Repubblica is the penalty of death,
Decides, in soul and consciousness, that the accused person is found guilty of the crime of high treason, and as such is condemned to the penalty of death,
Considering that the infamy of the crime of high treason is incompatible with the highest ideals of the nobility,
Considering that the Serenissima Repubblica is to be assimilated to the Pater Patriae, that the heinous crime of high treason is to be assimilated to the murder of the father ; that such an act puts the convict in contradiction to the Sacred Faith,
Decides that the convict is stripped of all noble titles, that his holdings and possessions are to be confiscated, that the sentence of death will be executed by mere hanging, that his body will be burned and the ashes, scattered.
On the charge of high treason sustained against Doge Francesco Foscari, the Supremo Terribile Tribunale,
Considering that the Senate endorsed the hiring of the fore-mentionned Count Carmagnola ; that the responsibility of one should not extend to the act of others, except when specifically stated,
Considering that the Doge Foscarini faithfully reported all accounts of bad behaviour on the part of Count Carmagnola, through the services of the most loyal servant of the Serenissima Repubblica, signor Fodoroni,
Considering that, as previously said, the Senate endorsed, and even suggested, the hiring of the fore-mentionned Count Carmagnola ; that our office, the Supremo Terribile Tribunale, has not the competency of judging the Senate ; that it is our belief that such separation of the Powers will, in the times to come, be recognized as the basis of true democracy,
Considering that what the Senate decides, is not in the power of the Tribunale to outdo ; that prosecuting against a man who was respecting the Senate's decision, be it a simple citizen or the Doge himself, would be both discriminatory and unwise,
Considering that war, as well as peace, is a question of politics ; that this Tribunale should not, in the name of the separation of the Powers, be responsible of the trial of politic matters ; that politics is the realm of the Senate and of the Doge,
Decides that all all charges against Francesco Foscari, Doge of the Serenissima Repubblica, Arm of the Senate, are to be dropped, and his reputation and fame restored,
Advises that, in the times to come, the Senate handles itself all matters of politics,
Written and proclaimed this day, in the city of Veneto, under the guidance of St-Mark,
On the behalf of the Supremo Terribile Tribunale of the Serenissima Repubblica,
Prime Inquisitor Lawkeeper Dandolo, Il Rosso
The judgement of the Quarantia on Carmagnola
Mocenigo: Innocent, retain.
Dandolo: Hear ye the sentence. This tribunal condemns Carmagnola to be executed by beheading on the morning of the 5th of May of this year of 1432, publicly in the piazza St. Marks. May God have mercy on his soul.
Last edited by Fodoron; 14-12-2004 at 18:43.