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Thread: The Official History of the British Empire, 1835-1920- Why Britain conquered All

  1. #1

    The Official History of the British Empire, 1835-1920- Why Britain conquered All

    Dear all, this will be my first Victoria AAR. Basically, Iíve played the game for a couple of months now, and I think that itís time to do another World Conquest AAR for the UK. This will be done in the form of a standard history of Britain written from a completely unbiased point of view.

    I started in 1.02, and upgraded to 1.03 later on. Thus some things that worked in 1.02 (Oregon territory, for example), wonít work in 1.03.

    Anyway, to get the out of character stuff out of the way, hereís basically my strategy

    1 Ruthlessly horde machine parts in order to prevent the world from industrialising
    2 Slash naval and crime spending initially, in order to boost research spending and still make a profit.
    3 Research culture, business and industrial techs (in that order) to try and maximise prestige and profits
    4 The usual stuff, start industrialising by building steel, glass, paper, cement, fabric and lumber factories, before moving into better ones like fertiliser, furniture, clothes, and eventually build high end factories when my economy can support them
    5 Gain cheap prestige by early colonising and a few quick colonial wars
    6 Gain great relations with several key great powers, trade meaningless things to get loads of money to build railways etc
    7 Convert a vast number of Indians into soldiers, and make my grim march to world conquest.
    8 Iíll go for a late game WC- may be difficult, as defence gets tougher towards the end, but thatíll be the way I do it. In 1870 I will start to take on the world.

    Will I succeed? Who knows, but it should be fun. Iíve played up to about 1885 at the moment, and hopefully Iíll be able to succeed- but who knows?

  2. #2

    The Official History of the British Empire

    Part I: A Changing world.

    In 1835, Britain stood supreme as the dominant military and economic force in the world, with prestige to match. In past centuries, Britain had acquired dominion over the neighbouring Celtic peoples of Scotland and Ireland, and had emerged triumphant in struggles with would be European conquerors such as the Habsburgs, Bourbons and Napoleons of Europe. British had achieved its unique status in part because it was an island, and the oceans thwarted the troops of would be invaders, but this is not of course the only reason. Britainís unique government system, bequeathed by their Anglo-Saxon forebears and modified over the years must ultimately be counted as uniquely British. Her Majestyís government was perfect blend of tradition and innovation, with its relationship between parliament and monarchy, inherited and elective powers and between conservatism and liberalism. It was this government that had built and defended a large colonial empire, as well presided over the beginnings of industrialisation in the period of the close of the 18th century. But it would be in the 19th century that Britain truly became a world superpower. This history will concentrate exclusively upon the period following 1835. In retrospect, there appears to be little difference in British policy in this period, but certain deep changes were occurring.

    1836 saw a shift away from the naval industrial establishment that had dominated Britains research efforts for so long. Instead, in Oxford and Cambridge, the most important universities in England, a new radical academic faction gain temporary control. Mostly liberal in outlook, these academics sought to reconcile the innate wishes of the Anglosaxons for constitutional government with the reality of unrepresentative rule in the colonies. Whilst these academics did break the dead hand of Emmanuel Kant on idealism, as well as developing theories of what is now known as Romanticism, a reaction amongst the Oxbridge dons set in within a few years, and a more traditional academic establishment took the place of the radicals, which spread its research efforts over much more diverse cultural, industrial and commercial fields.

    Many things continued in 1835 that were occurring before. Many new crown colonies were founded, such as South Australia, Fort Chimo and others. Likewise, government, industry and religious groups established trading posts and missions in various territories throughout the world, in regions as diverse as Southern New Guinea, the Bonin Islands, Djbouti and others. The slow and steady expansion of British Authority in Canada, Australia, the Pacific and Africa was scarcely different from the colonial acquisitions of the 18th and earlier centuries. However, there were certain differences. In many cases, colonial expansion was driven not by economic imperatives, such had driven the conquest of much of India by the British East India company, by the need to offload surplus population, such as America or the penal colonies of Australia, but more and more dominated by the question of Prestige- that indefinable set of qualities that marked out the nations that were great not only by military and economic power, but also inspires greatness in the minds of people. It could be argued that later in the 19th century, Britainís industrial power was falling behind that of the United States, or militarily behind the Russian Empire, but in prestige terms Britain would always lead.

    The colonial acquisitions in the period of 1835-45 were in general relatively poor and underpopulated, and in many cases scarcely merited the investment put in. The value in international prestige terms was high, though difficult to measure- the economic benefits of a coaling station on the barren island of midway were negligible, but in terms of prestige and perceived power were significant. Many politicians complained that the money expended in establishing control over these far flung outposts was too high, and that the funds expended would be better expended developing the infrastructure in Britain and her colonies. On the one hand, this argument is persuasive- the building of railroads languished without state subsidies, and industrial growth was also retarded somewhat. However, there is no doubt that Britainís imperial competitors were aware that Britain would defend her interests with a firm hand if necessary. The French, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, Russians and even the Ottomans continued to build up their colonial possessions, and in many cases sought to undercut British profits. Although costly, there is little doubt that without significant expenditures, the British Empire would have declined in relative power, as other nations sought to expand their spheres of influence.

    War with Russia May 1836-1843

    The Alaskan-New Zealand war is a case in point. Neither the British government nor the Russians appeared to desire hostility, but nevertheless, a small scale armed conflict did occur. The colonial office had become concerned after the Russian government sponsored the expansion of commercial and military outposts into the Northwest territories of Canada, where the UK possessed substantial interests, but also established trading posts and supported missionary work in the Pacific, particularly New Zealand and parts of Africa. Hostilities between the Russian settlers and Canadian militia forces broke out on May10th 1836. Although little military conquest took place, British and colonial forces occupied many Russian outposts. Russian outposts in Alaska fell to British forces based out of Vancouver Island, whilst small elements of the Indian Army (Still theoretically part of the British East India Company) occupied the pacific territories, including New Zealand. A force from South Africa would later occupy the Russian missions established at the base of the Congo River. In New Zealand in particular, it was feared that the Russians would trade weapons to the Maori, leading to an escalation in hostilities between the small British settlements and the native population. In the event, most Russian establishments fell to British forces relatively quickly. The greatest battles were in the naval theatre, where the relatively small Russian navy was quickly forced back into port by decisive battles off the coast of West Africa, which crippled the Russian fleet, which never again left port.

    The conflict continued for many years, until it was finally ended after the opening of a new front during the first Opium war. When considering the opium war, it is important to remember that Britain was the only nation to challenge Qing rule over China. In the 1700s the Manchu had established their Qing dynasty and claimed the mandate of heaven to rule over China, establishing a brutal oriental despotism over the Chinese. Britain, whilst supporting constitutional government, was loath to intervene in what was regarded as purely internal Chinese affairs. However, the actions of the Qing gave little choice. The actions of the Qing government in banning many profitable trades, including opium, led to a terrible economic decline in India and Britain. The heavy handed tactics used by the Qing soon led to disaster, as a British sailor was killed. With extreme reluctance, Her Majesty's Government was forced into a state of hostilities on July 8 1839.

    This first Free Trade war, as it quickly became called, was a reltively quick and bloodless affair. British troops occupied Hong Kong and the surrounding regions with relative ease. Curiously, the Qing refused to cease fighting. HMG was forced to take stronger measures. An amphibious force was collected- landing at Tianjin, they quickly occupied the city before driving inland and occupying China's capital of Peking.

    Meanwhile, an adventurous officer called Mitchell saw an excellent opportunity to stifle both Russian and Chinese imperialist designs. After occupying Peking, Mitchell daringly struck forth across Mongolia with a small force of cavalry. Mitchell successfully eluded both Russian and Chinese forces, and arrived in Turkestan in early 1842. With the pluck and daring so characteristic of the British Officer, Mitchell then proclaimed the crown colony of Turkestan, right under the noses of the Russians and the Chinese.


    General Mitchell frees Turkestan from Chinese and Russian Domination


    Other troops occupied Russian and Chinese outposts on the Island of Sakhalin later that year. Both wars were brought to a successful conclusion early in 1843. The Russians agreed to cease their colonisation efforts and accept the loss of Alaska, New Zealand, The Pacific, Africa and other territories, whilst the Chinese were compelled to pay substantial war indemnities and allow free trade with Britain once more. It was a most satisfactory end to the conflict, and Britain gained great prestige from the acquired territories.
    Last edited by Gjerg Kastrioti; 10-04-2004 at 09:30.

  3. #3
    Foreign relations 1835-45

    Foreign and colonial policy were inextricably linked during the 19th century. Britain was determined to safeguard the empire she had acquired, but was equally determined to avoid conflict. Britain developed defence pacts with many nations, in particular, Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal, the Ottoman Empire and Argentina. These pacts fostered stability and peace in international relations, and generally preserved the balance of power.


    The Beautiful young Queen of Great Britain, Victoria Regina



    The rise to the throne of Queen Victoria Welfen Von Hannover to the throne of Britain led to a split with Hannover, whose inheritance laws did not allow female descent. The split freed Britain from the need to intervene in unstable German politics, and allowed a much more flexible policy to develop. British businessmen also gained lucrative trade deals with many European nations, returns on which were normally reinvested in the economic development of Britain, in forms such as railways. Indeed, US, Spanish, Dutch and Ottoman capital was used to fund much of the expansion of early railways. In exchange for economic aid, the Spanish government ceded much of Cuba to the UK in 1842. In general, Britain fostered excellent relations with world powers (with the notable exceptions of Russia and France), although there was some criticism of the deals organised by the Foreign Office amongst other powers. Some felt that Britain was giving away very little, whilst gaining important concessions.








    Still, there were difficult moments. Britain forced the ambitious Egypt of Mehmet Ali and the French to step back in the Eastern Crisis. However, it was in North America that British diplomacy was most strained. Britain cultivated the government of the United States as a useful ally in securing British interests in the Americas, whilst following a policy of friendship with the governments of Mexico and Argentina. However, this policy was severely strained by the outbreak of war over the Texas question in 1838. Britain decided to back the US, despite concerns that US expansion might threaten Britain's holdings in Canada. Britain's role in this was small. After a small force occupied Mexican outposts in Oklahoma, a larger marine force landed at Veracruz. Marching inland, British troops occupied Mexico city and forced the Mexican government to pay substantial indemnities, and left the war. The US carried on, gaining the ex-Capital of Texas, Houston, in a peace settlement.

    However, Anglo-American relations were strained by the outbreak of a short lived rebellion in 1836. Later in 1844, as a result of the so called "Aroostook war", Britain was forced to cede the territory of Easton to the US. However, these conflicts were substantially resolved by the Oregon treaty of 1846. This treaty was a landmark in the history of North America- the US agreed to cede all claims to the so called Oregon territory. However, the US made up for this diplomatic defeat by declaring war on Mexico shortly afterwards.

    Economic development

    Economic development during this period was steady, without being spectacular. Economic development was uneven. Some industries, in particular iron smelting, Glass and fabric experienced spectacular growth, in part due to new inventions, and the adoption of techniques developed abroad.


    The Americans offer an excellent deal.


    Other industries, such as armaments and fertiliser, shrunk considerably. Most other industries experienced steady growth, in part due to improved transportation infrastructure. The building of railways throughout Britain considerably eased transport restrictions throughout Britain and parts of the Empire; Canada in particular experienced enormous industrial growth due to the building of large transport infrastructure. Ontario and Quebec went from being undeveloped provincial backwaters to industrial hubs rivalling London and Northern England. Some railways were also built in the colonies, however, development here was difficult to say the least. Scarcities of lumber and steel drove prices up, and it was only in a few areas such as India and sources of tropical wood that large scale development took place.

    One factor in particular hindered industrial development- the lack of a supply of gold bullion. Precious metals were in very short supply on the world market, and very few large scale mines were developed. One of the knock on factors of this was that industry did not engage in developing an educated workforce, due to the shortage of capital. Instead, less qualified craftsmen were employed, whose industrial output was limited by lack of supervisors and other managerial personnel. Indeed, briefly during this period, due to large-scale immigration, the United States temporarily possessed greater capital investment than the UK, although the UK reasserted her industrial might towards the end of this period.

    Faced with an enormous budget deficit in 1835, the treasury decided on a scheme to ruthlessly cut expenditures. At the same time, owing to the complaints of industrial leaders, taxes had to be slashed in order to prevent large scale economic impoverishment and to lessen immigration. Indeed, many Irish threatened to migrate to the US if taxes were raised.

    Despite howls of protest from various interest groups, cuts had to be made. The most severe cuts fell upon the admiralty, which had its funding cut by a massive 96%, and also in crime fighting. The pet project of Sir Robert Peel, the metropolitan Police force, was cut to nearly nothing. Defence spending was cut by a small amount. Education and the army were the big winners, emerging with slightly increased funding. Whilst these measures did lead to the build up of crime and leave the navy vulnerable, a small budget surplus was achieved. Government subsidies of schools and industrial research did lead to the promise of further industrial breakthroughs in the future. Social reformers were disappointed however, as the treasury rejected all calls for social reforms.


    The Budget for 1842, as presented by the Chancellor of the Exhequer. Some complained about the lack of crime fighting fund
    Last edited by Gjerg Kastrioti; 10-04-2004 at 09:37.

  4. #4
    Interesting AAR, intervening in mexico....interesting....

    I suppose you are quite familiar with the pause button by now eh
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    Field Marshal

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    great job so far.

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    General Seidita's Avatar

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    very nice writing style, sounds very real as if it all happend and its coming from a history book. One small complaint though. The pictues are fairly big and its a little annoying to scroll back and forth across the screen (it almost scared me off). But other then that very good job thus far.

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    Nice AAR. I'm curious what you intend to do about the Dominions. IIRC, Great Britain has no choice but to release them.
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  8. #8
    Quote Originally Posted by Zeppelin
    Nice AAR. I'm curious what you intend to do about the Dominions. IIRC, Great Britain has no choice but to release them.
    Releasing the Dominions is AI only, thankfully. Otherwise I'd be screwed, as Canada is more industralised than Britain.

    Quote Originally Posted by Seidita
    very nice writing style, sounds very real as if it all happend and its coming from a history book. One small complaint though. The pictues are fairly big and its a little annoying to scroll back and forth across the screen (it almost scared me off). But other then that very good job thus far.
    Thank you Seidita. A history book style is one I decided for. I tossed up a couple of styles, narrative etc, but decided on a scholarly tone in the end. I recently borrowed the Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire, which is the sort of book I ope to emulate for my history.

    Thanks Dan, thanks Flavius. Intervening in Mexico was an accident. I was trying to cultivate good relations with both the Mexicans and the Americans, but when I went to war, it was one or the other, and friendship with the US was more important. A pity I had to choose though.

    Anyway, we will continue!

  9. #9
    Part II- Crisis and recovery, 1845-55

    The Oregon treaty was a great diplomatic triumph for Her Majestyís Government, and it came at a crucial time. Britain faced one of the worst economic and social challenges in her history.

    Famine in Ireland

    The population of Ireland faced an appalling famine in the years of 1844-8. Despite industrial growth in many areas, a large part of the Irish population still retained an agricultural life which in many ways had changed little since ancient times, despite the best efforts of Her Majestyís Government to encourage development.

    One crop in particular was consumed by a large part of the total population- the potato, introduced around 1600. This dependence led to disaster when blight- the fungus phytophthora infestans struck the potato crop in the mid 1840s, leading to widespread famine on a massive scale. The cost of feeding so large a number of people was impossible. Sir Robert Peel made a token effort to supply grain to a small number, but the numbers were too great for these measures to make a real difference. The government did however, lower taxes to enable the Irish to be able to afford some sustenance. Owing to HMís governments efforts to industrialise Ireland, a large amount of the population was engaged in Industrial production, and private capital was mobilised to a large extent to help mitigate the disaster. Finally, after years of dragging their feet, the British Army was used to quell disturbances and distribute food. A small percentage of the population did emigrate, but the crisis did eventually abate as good harvests returned in 1849.


    The British army ensured fair food distribution to end the famine


    Economic and Social Change- The Wealthy become poor, the poor become wealthy

    It may seem odd, but in the period leading up to the middle of the 19th century, massive social changes took place, driven by puzzling and even today inexplicable economic changes. In the early part of the 19th century, the greater part of the wealthy classes, the landed Gentry and the newly wealthy capitalist class, was progressively impoverished. Some economists point to the mania for failed investments, the enormous daily needs which most aristocrats and capitalists had and the general shortage of precious metals, but none of these hypotheses seem plausible. However, it is true that the possession of wealth moved away from both aristocrats and plutocrats, decisively towards those who had previously been known as the lower classes. Miners, factory workers, soldiers, and farmers in particular, went from being the lowest members of society to possessing enormous economic and political power, whilst the income derived either from remaining family estates or from running large corporate concerns was so insufficient as to not allow the ex-rich to drink away their worries with cheap beer and gin.

    Naturally, these changes gave rise to a great deal of comment. The great writer Charles Dickens captured the plight of the ex-rich in the harsh new world of farmer and worker dominance brilliantly in his novels. Two in particular stand out. A Christmas Carol tells the story of the redemption of Hamish Marley- as a clerk, he ruthlessly exploits his boss, the hard working Ebenezer Scrooge. However, after a visit from the ghosts of Christmas, Marley allows Scrooge to demote himself to become a manual labourer, bringing the spirit of Christmas into every heart. Great Expectations is the other best known Dickens novel- This is the story of Pip, a young Capitalist who appears to be forced to follow in his fathers footsteps and become head of a giant steel manufacturing corporation. After a chance encounter with an aristocrat convict, Pip is sent away to learn the difficult trade of farming, eventually able to marry his childhood sweetheart.

    The plight of the ex-rich was detailed in the publication of a New Magazine, Vanity Fair , which showed clearly and graphically the terrible hardships faced by fallen capitalists and aristocrats. Sordid stories of alcoholism, opium use, child prostitution, disease and family breakdown were commonplace, and did much to generate sympathy for aristocrats and capitalists among their betters.

    The impoverishment of the upper classes brought with it massive social change, and coincided with many movements aiming for greater representation for the now wealthy labouring classes. As wealth had passed from the hands of the capitalists and aristocrats, it was natural that the newly rich wished for a political role commensurate with their new found affluence- however, this trend was fought vigorously, though ineffectually by sitting MPs, who were normally holdouts of the landed aristocracy. However, without funds their influence was gradually ebbing away. The requirements of voting based upon wealth meant that farmers and labourers made up the vast amount of the electorate. Into this volatile mix was thrown the Chartist movement, a group aiming at universal suffrage and general democratic and liberal reforms. The Ex-Rich seized upon universal suffrage as the means to gain at least some political representation, and despite influence from Queen Victoria, by 1847 the British government had become democratic in all senses of the word, as restrictions on the press, the right to ban parties and the rights to public meetings were removed. The right to sit in the House of Lords became elective, rather than hereditary.

    However, these political changes were in many ways less disruptive that they appeared- The vast majority of the population supported the continuation of the monarchy, espoused Christianity as their religion and generally voted for the conservatives during election times. Thus whilst political power had passed to other hands, much the same policies, towards health, education and other areas were followed as before, but with the additional benefit of broad support for these benefits. This was important, for in the sphere of foreign relations Britainís new democracy would face severe tests.

  10. #10
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    Finally had a chance to catch up with this, and so far it's very good. I agree, the history book style is coming across quite nicely.
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    I love the new version of A Christmas Carol.

  12. #12
    Foreign affairs 1844-55

    In 1844, the leader of the ďstateĒ of Dai Viet, or Annam as it was sometimes known, instituted a policy of the extermination of Christianity. Naturally, the Annamese Christians appealed for help to both Britain and France, the most prestigious nations and defenders of Christianity. The French chose to ignore their plight. Britain however, with itís armies bloodied from fighting the Russians, could not ignore this cruel persecution, and quickly sent an expeditionary force to end it. By early 1846 British troops occupied the Annamese coast and the territory of their vassal the Cambodians. The peace treaty was humiliating, establishing a protectorate over all Cambodian and Annamese territory bar their respective capitals.

    The Soderbundkrieg- Intervention in the Swiss Civil War

    The skirmish with Annam was a mere tuppeny brawl compared with the European struggles that began in 1846. A large scale conflict broke out owing to a crisis developing due to one of Europe's smallest nations- Switzerland. The efforts of the protestant Swiss central government to increase centralised control over the fractious Swiss cantons was met with fierce resistance by the primarily Catholic cantons, which formed a league under the leadership on Soderbund. The French threatened to intervene on the Catholic side- Great Britain reluctantly decided to back the Swiss, not so much to support the Swiss as to stop the French. The Foreign office was deeply concerned with French designs on Africa and the Pacific, which threatened the delicate balance of power in the region. After making plain that French intervention in Switzerland would be met with armed force, Britain was surprised when the French refused to back down and instead launched an invasion of Switzerland. Reluctantly, Great Britain was forced to declare war upon France.

    The Soderbundkrieg As the Swiss civil war was known began with several embarrassing defeats for the British navy. Off the coast of Martinique a large group of unescorted transports was ambushed by French Men-O-War, and blasted to the bottom of the Carribean along with 30,000 souls, preventing an amphibious invasion of the island. Reluctantly, parliament agreed to a modest increase in the budget for the navy, increasing the funds from 4% of the required amount for full functionality amount to 25% of the required amount. Some additional construction of commerce raiders and corvette class ships was also allowed, although numbers remained small. Nevertheless, these improvements were more than adequate, as even at 25% funding the Royal Navy soon swept the seas of French warships. In early 1947 the battle between the French and British navies was fought in the gulf of Campeche, with victory going to Admiral Cochraneís superior fleet. It was expected that the French would make peace, but they refused, and the war dragged on. In order to bring the French to the negotiating table, an ambitious invasion of Algiers was planned.


    Cochrane beats the crap out of Admiral Chaffe


    Another victory in 1850 near the Balearic Islands resulted in the total destruction of the French navy as a fighting force.

    OOC: Note- This war was actually a colonial war declared by me against, but it seems so much better story-wise for the Swiss civil war to spiral out of control


    The remnants of the French navy are destroyed whilst the last of French colonial holdings is occupied


    The defeat of the French navy allowed the British to land troops anywhere within the French colonial holdings, although an invasion of the French mainland was beyond the resources available to Great Britain. For the duration of the campaign, and indeed after it, the Bengali army was the main force in operation against the enemy. Some politicians criticized the ďOutsourcing of vital jobs to IndiaĒ, but as the Indian native troops demanded wages of only one tenth that of their British counterparts, the growth of the Indian army was a geo-strategic necessity in order to maintain Great Britainís military strength without placing an intolerable burden upon British taxpayers. The units raised were nearly all from the heavily populated Andaman Islands- an area with the population of Calcutta, but with only meagre grain resources, whose tribes were known both for their courage and ferocity, but also their discipline. The Andamans excelled either as regular infantry or as hussar cavalry, although occasionally a few cavalry and infantry were raised when weapons were short.


    Bengali Hussars rescue Africa from the French


    Andaman Hussars were instrumental in the occupation of French holdings in West Africa and the pacific, while Andaman regulars stormed Franceís Caribbean holdings. After a brilliant amphibious campaign by General James, the last French holdings in Algeria fell. Sadly, although Britain was victorious in the colonies, it was not able to prevent the French from imposing their own settlement against the Swiss, which ceded the Francophone cantons to Paris, a deeply humiliating peace. Britain decided against taking any developed territory from France- there seemed little point gaining a poor reputation over poor territory such as Algeria. Also, Britain became involved with another war due to their alliance with the United States of America.

    Intervention in Mexico


    President Polk


    The victory in the US presidential elections of President Polk in 1846 ushered in a new era of US expansionism. A rigid expansionist and imperialist, Polk was determined to expand the borders at any cost, and quickly initiated hostilities with Mexico. The initial battles with Mexican forces went extremely badly for the Americans, however. Santa Ana, the used his cavalry and infantry in a cunning fashion to defeat the inexperienced US forces. President Polk, seeing his plans for an American Empire fade as fast as the blood dried on the banks of the Rio Grande, appealed to Britain for help. Britain did agree to intervene, but at a price- the alliance was bought by relinquishing claims to territories such as Muskogee, which allowed Her Majestyís Government to claim Colorado and Oklahoma as Crown colonies. Polk also agreed to re-ratify the Oregon treaty, which was within an inch of being repealed by Congress.


    The Oregon treaty ratified as the US invades Texas.


    Britain's performance was a repeat of the first Mexican war, occupying Veracruz before marching upon Mexico city and demanding substantial indemnities. Nevertheless, the amphibious landing at Veracruz was enough to force Santa Ana to split his forces, allowing Polk to occupy Texas, which the Mexicans were forced to cede, temporarily satisfying the United Stateís expansionist tendencies until the next election. However, this small scale war was totally dwarfed by events in Europe.

    The Balance tipped

    Enormous changes were occurring in Germany. The German aristocrats were hit hard by the general loss of income. However, their response was not concessions to democratic forces, as in Britain, but a tightening of aristocratic control. In May 1851, the princes or Fursten of Germany united under the leadership of Prussia as the urging of Prussiaís ďIron ChancellorĒ Otto von Bismarck. All of Germany fell into the Iron fist of the Chancellor- the trends towards liberalism and democracy in Germany were decisively crushed under the heels of Prussian jackboots. Prussia soon expanded. The French, in spite of their drubbing at the hands of the British, declared war on the new German empire, perhaps seeking to gain prestige by trying to act as the defender of the liberty of the Rhineland, declared war on June 8th. But by November, Paris lay in Prussian hands. Kaiser Wilhelm Von Hohenzollern was proclaimed Kaiser of the II German Reich. Bismarck, speaking at the coronation spelt out his view of events.



    The great questions of the day will not be settled by means of speeches and majority decisions but by iron and blood.

    A new power arises in Europe- the Second Reich


    A new power had appeared in Europe- France was forced to cede Alsace and Lorraine. Denmark was next, for the territories of Schleiswig Holstein. At some point, the Germans would have to either cease their expansion or face the consequences. However, at the time Britain had more pressing matters.

    Of great concern to British interests were the Russian threats towards the ďsick man of EuropeĒ, the Ottoman Empire. With British help, the Ottoman Empire had begun an ambitious series of reforms, known as the Tanzimat, to bring their administration closer to a British model. British firms had invested heavily in the Ottoman Empire, and British companies had been granted virtual control of certain areas in the Balkans.


    Buying the Balkans from the Turks


    The Russian Empire however, despite its general backwardness and economic problems had decided to take advantage of Ottoman perceived ďweaknessĒ. Of course, this weakness was only relative, as the continuance of serfdom within Russia and slow industrial growth meant that although strong, Russia would in time fall behind the Ottomans. Britain was deeply suspicious of Russian intentions. Russia had expanded enormously in recent years, annexing the Khanates of Bokhara, Kokand and Khiva and annexing the Christian kingdom of Georgia. Further Russian expansion could even threaten India and Turkestan.

    Britain was right to be suspicious, for in 1853 the Slavophiles were able to convince the Tsar that it was time to reap the spoils of the Ottoman Empire. Britain and the Ottomans found themselves at war with Russia.
    Last edited by Gjerg Kastrioti; 10-04-2004 at 09:21.

  13. #13
    General Seidita's Avatar

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    seems britian can't stay out of a war very long. But i am very sad at the sorry state my home country is in (USA)

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    Great job.

  15. #15
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    looks like there'll be no "ses to shining sea" for the americans.

    Good going

  16. #16
    Coz 1, thanks for your kind words. I really must get around to reading all of Into the West, I just haven't had time yet.

    Quote Originally Posted by Seidita
    seems britian can't stay out of a war very long. But i am very sad at the sorry state my home country is in (USA)
    Ah well, er yes, I can't stay out of a war for long. Basically because I need a steady stream of diplomats to buy up large parts of the Balkans, Carribean, Italy, Mexico, etc. Without the additional diplomats a colonial war brings, I'd be able to buy much less. However, thus far (and indeed, until ~1880 or so) I've only declared colonial wars, and have only been drawn into full wars by my allies (Polk's war against Mexico).

    In any case, the US isn't doing badly. I've never fought them- they get loads of emigration, their industrial rating was breifly number one, and before Conservative Imperial Germany united, they were always number 2, now number 3. All I've done is prevent the US from expanding, as well as bought tech and cash off of them through claims.

    Quote Originally Posted by Dan Cook
    Great job.
    Thanks Dan

    Quote Originally Posted by Rajj
    looks like there'll be no "sea to shining sea" for the americans.
    Thanks Rajj! But I am somewhat confused- are you implying that the US would somehow have some kind of designs on Britains North American territories? Certainly not, Britain gained these areas by treaties, not force. The Americans would be fools to interfere with Britain's "Manifest Destiny". I'm sure given sufficient time, the US will realise the folly of their short lived rebellion, and return to British rule as the prodigal son returns home.

    Mwa ha ha ha ha ha !

    On another note, the next update will be tomorrow. Does anyone know of a good free graphics editing program?

    Some of these pictures are rather large, and could do with shrinking. At the moment the only graphics program I use is MS paint.

  17. #17
    General Seidita's Avatar

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    Quote Originally Posted by Gjerg Kastrioti
    I'm sure given sufficient time, the US will realise the folly of their short lived rebellion, and return to British rule as the prodigal son returns home.

    Mwa ha ha ha ha ha !

    On another note, the next update will be tomorrow. Does anyone know of a good free graphics editing program?

    Some of these pictures are rather large, and could do with shrinking. At the moment the only graphics program I use is MS paint.
    YOU ARE EVIL WE WILL NOT GO WITHOUT A FIGHT

    that said...


    i have this [free] program it says #1 Screen Capture

  18. #18
    GunslingAAR coz1's Avatar
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    Finally - Germany forms proper! I do not believe I have yet to see it form as it did historically in one game I have played. Perhaps because you are a strong power as the UK as the player. The style remains top notch. Keep it up!
    Northumberland Lives - new AAR for EUIV

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  19. #19
    Quote Originally Posted by Seidita
    YOU ARE EVIL WE WILL NOT GO WITHOUT A FIGHT

    that said...


    i have this [free] program it says #1 Screen Capture
    Me, Evil? Certainly not. When the time comes to liberate the US from their own government, we will not shirk.

    Glad you're still reading Coz. In actual fact, it's not the historical Germany, it's the conservative Empire event in 1851. Prussia inherits all of the territories, without the silly capture of Paris that's otherwise needed. Germany is now the most powerful AI country.

    To Continue!
    Last edited by Gjerg Kastrioti; 09-04-2004 at 08:20.

  20. #20
    Victoria and Albert

    Before considering the story of the Baltic war as the Russian war against the British and the Turks became known as, the rulers of the British Empire must be mentioned including a truly remarkable couple must be mentioned. In 1840, Queen Victoria married Albrecht Von Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. The Prince consort would be known thereafter as Prince Albert.

    It was a marriage made in heaven- Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were the perfect couple, and mutual love was the basis of the relationship. In the end they had 9 children together.



    "Albert, wilt thou have this woman to be thy wedded wife?" and
    "Victoria, wilt thou have Albert to be thy wedded husband?" and
    "Who giveth this woman to be married to this man?"

    To this last question the Duke of Sussex replied by taking the queen's hand and saying, "I do." Perhaps some in the assembly may have smiled when the Queen of England promised to obey this younger son of a German Duke, and when he said, "With all my worldly goods I thee endow." The queen tells us, however, that she pronounced the word obey with a deliberate intent to keep her vow, and that she kept it.
    http://womenshistory.about.com/libra...victoria_l.htm

    Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were patrons of the arts. Under their benevolent reign, Britain became foremost in realist literature and music, and many more arts besides. Cities such as Manchester, Birmingham, Glasgow, Scunthorpe, Sheffield and Grimsby bloomed as cultural centers of Europe. Sadly, owing to the prevalence of crime by aristocratic gangs, London and Edinborough fared less well. Britain eclipsed France and Austria as the leading cultural nations of Europe.

    The Prince Consort however, was never permitted to become King. Albert remained resolutely German- indeed, he introduced many German traditions, such as the Christmas tree to Britain. Victoria and Albert sponsored many missionary societies, and indeed this period saw an increased role of the church in daily life (Clericalism). Parliament was never prepared to give Albert the crown which Victoria so desperately wanted him to have, and he remained forever the Prince Consort.

    State and Government

    Under Victoria and Albert, the relationship between the Monarchy, State and Government became essentially fixed for the remainder of the period. Parliament and Monarchy were seen as the overarching authorities within the British Empire. The monarchy symbolized Order and Tradition. Parliament symbolized the freedom and representation offered to citizens of the Empire.

    An expansion of the bureaucracy took place. Existing offices such as the Colonial and War Offices were expanded, whilst new offices such as the Indian Office, Home Office, and Board of Trade were also founded. By far the most powerful offices was the triumvirate of the Treasury, Home Office and Foreign Office. Some up and coming sheep farmers criticized the methods of recruitment for the Civil Services.

    Despite laws restricting nepotism, a career in the civil service was generally granted upon the basis of character, upbringing and birth, rather than merit. An enormous proportion of civil service recruits came from the ďScunbyĒ universities of Scunthorpe Polytechnic and Grimsby Agricultural College. Recruits from other universities, such as Oxford and Cambridge which often contained aristocratic and capitalist elements generally found their prospects of advancement limited even if recruited.

    War With Russia

    The Baltic war, as the war with Russia became known as, began quite badly for the British forces. British military planners decided that the quickest way to end the war was a direct assault on the Russian Capital of St Petersburg. British Military planners rejected another plan calling for the occupation of the worthless Crimean Peninsula. Before studying the course of the war, a few words here must be said regarding the composition of the British army.

    Owing to the lower wages and upkeep required by native troops, most of Britain armies was composed of Bengalis, from the Andaman islands and Bengal itself. The Bengalis excelled as both infantry and cavalry. Infantry divisions were normally trained as regular infantry, and were generally trained a cut above the infantry used by other nations. Infantry corps were normally composed of 5 12,000 man divisions of regular infantry- occasionally however, another division of mounted infantry (dragoons) and horse drawn artillery was added. Thus, infantry corps were either 60,000 or 72,000 men each. The cavalry, of which there were slightly fewer numbers, was composed of 5 divisions of 12,000 men, all mounted, trained for both for speed and firepower as hussars. In terms of training, the British army generally followed the advice of Karl von Clausewitz, emphasizing training and discipline in conducting military operations. The military had however, suffered from little innovation in preceding decades, and their tactics and equipment were often little changed from the Napoleonic wars. To add to this standing army there was also a large number of reservists. Although never used, Great Britainís enemies understood that in the event of war, Britain would have access to a large territorial army available for defense of the Empire.

    The Russian troops were normally organized into slightly less well trained divisions of 10,000 men each, occasionally supplemented by artillery, with their cavalry often wasted as supporting units. The size of corps generally varied tremendously, in response to local threats. Russian training emphasized the importance of duty to the Rodina, spirit and Morale, in accordance with the direction of Baron de Jomini, the Italian officer responsible for organizing the Tsarís armies following the Napoleonic wars. Overall, the Russian army was quite large, and was a formidable opponent. The Russian navy was far inferior to the British, and had not been rebuilt following the previous Russo-British war more than a decade earlier.

    Despite its large size however, Russia faced enormous difficulties in its quest to occupy the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman, British and French diplomacy, fearing Russian expansion organized a large coalition against the Russians. The Serbs and Moldavians reluctantly followed the Sultan into war with Russia, and later the French, Swedes, Mexicans, Sardinians, Swedes and Americans joined the war to prevent Russian expansion, although most of these nations contributed little. Later in 1854, the Germans, after initially promising neutrality would lead their own invasion for their own gain.

    In June 1854, some months after the Russian declaration of war, British forces began amphibious landings upon the Baltic Coast with the objective of capturing St Petersburg and forcing the Russian government to sue for peace. However, although the initial landings proved successful, the Russians were quickly able to organize an effective defense. In July 1855, the commander of the III Bengali Hussar Corp (otherwise known as the Light Brigade), Raglan, was ordered to assault a Russian artillery position near Talinn. However, after showing considerable courage taking the position, Raglan then fell under a powerful counterattack by Russian cavalry and infantry and was forced to retreat, taking heavy casualties. The heroism shown by the Light Brigade was immortalized forever in a poem by Tennyson.


    Half a league, half a league,
    Half a league onward,
    All in the valley of Death
    Rode the six hundred.
    'Forward, the Light Brigade!
    Charge for the guns!' he said:
    Into the valley of Death
    Rode the six hundred.

    'Forward, the Light Brigade!'
    Was there a man dismay'd ?
    Not tho' the soldier knew
    Some one had blunder'd:
    Their's not to make reply,
    Their's not to reason why,
    Their's but to do and die:
    Into the valley of Death
    Rode the six hundred.

    Cannon to right of them,
    Cannon to left of them,
    Cannon in front of them
    Volley'd and thunder'd;
    Storm'd at with shot and shell,
    Boldly they rode and well,
    Into the jaws of Death,
    Into the mouth of Hell
    Rode the six hundred.

    Flash'd all their sabres bare,
    Flash'd as they turn'd in air
    Sabring the gunners there,
    Charging an army, while
    All the world wonder'd:
    Plunged in the battery-smoke
    Right thro' the line they broke;
    Cossack and Russian
    Reel'd from the sabre-stroke
    Shatter'd and sunder'd.
    Then they rode back, but not
    Not the six hundred.

    Cannon to right of them,
    Cannon to left of them,
    Cannon behind them
    Volley'd and thunder'd;
    Storm'd at with shot and shell,
    While horse and hero fell,
    They that had fought so well
    Came thro' the jaws of Death,
    Back from the mouth of Hell,
    All that was left of them,
    Left of six hundred.

    When can their glory fade?
    O the wild charge they made!
    All the world wonder'd.
    Honour the charge they made!
    Honour the Light Brigade,
    Noble six hundred!


    Of course, Tennysonís account contains some inaccuracies, as the light Brigade was roughly 60,000 strong, rather than 600, but it remains a masterpiece of the poetic arts.

    With the failure of the charge of the Light Brigade, Britain brought in more troops, until the Baltic forces numbered almost 300,000. In a brilliant amphibious landing, on October 20th, St. Petersburg was captured. The Hussars were able to maneuver successfully around a Russian army in Novgorod, and after capturing Moscow on November 4th, the Hussars attacked the rear of the Russian army whilst Regular infantry attacked from St Petersburg. Eventually, the Russian commander, Volubioff, surrendered on November 20th.

    The Tsar was captured and forced to sign peace, paying Britain substantial war indemnities and surrendering several Caucasian territories to the Ottomans. By january 1855 The St Petersburg war was over.
    Last edited by Gjerg Kastrioti; 10-04-2004 at 09:24.

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