How to calculate troop movement times:
1) Calculate the TOTAL troop movement time for cavalry.
2) Multiply by 1.5 for infantry or 2.0 for artillery.
3) Double in Africa or other special terrain areas.
4) Halve time for unloading to contolled territory if no enemy present.
5) If province is unexplored: triple time if expedition is lead by explorer, six-times time otherwise.
(Three or six times is a good estimate but not always precise).
6) Truncate fractional remainder (i.e. "floor" function).
Add the post-truncated times of each province when calculating trip times over multiple provinces.
February 1 has two days for movement and February 15 has two days for movement. It is possible to pause on the "second pseudo day" of February 1 or February 15.
10.0 days for plains
12.5 days for desert and forest
15.0 days for swamp
17.5 days for mountains
Crossing a river adds 5 days for cavalry.
(At least three rivers were fixed and are now correct in v1.07).
(The tail end of one river in China still has zero days added for crossing).
Crossing a straight adds 10 days for cavalry (v1.08)
Loading ships is 10 days if you have fast troop load port access.
Loading ships is 20 days if you don't have port access.
(Fast troop load access is provided if you control the port or an ally in a current war controls the port).
(Vassalship and military access do not help in giving port access for troop loading v1.07).
(Provence now has port access for troop loading v1.07).
Loading onto ships in a "fast northern sea-zone" (see Naval FAQ v1.08) is half the above time (i.e. 5 days for cavalry with port access or 10 days without port access).
There are no penalties for unloading troop times; it's the same as for the terrain type. Unloading may be half the time if province is controlled.
Africa, Tibet, and extreme northern provinces not in Europe have double troop movement times. Extreme northern provinces include northern Canada, Alaska, Greenland, and Kamchatka. Unloading to Africa (continent or island) or extreme northern terrain is the same doubling.